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Lin P.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Wu Y.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin G.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Shih Y.H.,National Cheng Kung University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Surgery

Objective: Hemodynamic stress participates in the initiation and progression of aneurysmal degeneration. Coarctation increases flow-mediated stress on the aortic wall. We tested the hypothesis that prolonged coarctation of an infrarenal abdominal aorta (AA) segment leads to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation in mini pigs. Methods: An asymmetric, funnel-shaped flow path was created by constricting the infrarenal AA segment of Taiwanese Lanyu mini pigs (age, 7-10 months; male and female) wrapped with an 8-mm-wide expanded polytetrafluoroethylene Teflon strip for 4 weeks (4w), 8 weeks (8w), and 12 weeks (12w) (seven pigs per group). This mimics the tortuous aneurysm neck in human AAA, which increases downstream flow-mediated stress. Significant flow disturbance resulting from moderate coarctation was indicated by a pulsatility index reduced to one third the inherent levels. Sham control pigs received Teflon wrapping without coarctation. Results: Aneurysm characterized by progressive medial degeneration occurred at the terminal AA after 12w coarctation. The outer dimension enlargement of the distal AA exceeded 50% compared with that of the proximal AA at 4w, 8w, and 12w postcoarctation (sham, 1.0; 4w, 1.7 ± 0.08; 8w, 1.5 ± 0.09; 12w, 1.7 ± 0.01). Lumen ratio of the distal-to-suprarenal AA increased time dependently, with 12w postcoarctation exhibiting significant increase (sham, 1.0 ± 0.05; 4w, 1.1 ± 0.11; 8w, 1.4 ± 0.20; 12w, 1.5 ± 0.09). In the distal AA, elastic lamellae exhibited fragmentation at 4w and more pronounced fragmentation with decreased density at 8w and 12w postcoarctation. Medial collagen density exhibited the trend to increase at 4w and 8w but was reversed at 12w postcoarctation. Smooth muscle exhibited disarray and nuclear density decrease at 8w and 12w postcoarctation (sham, 6966 ± 888/mm2; 4w, 5747 ± 1340/mm2; 8w, 4153 ± 323/mm2; 12w, 4083 ± 465/mm2). Gelatin zymography revealed that matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity markedly increased at 4w postcoarctation. Conclusions: Prolonged moderate coarctation caused regional hemodynamic stress and thereby induced degenerative AAA in the terminal AA. © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Source

Chen L.-R.,Taiwan Livestock Research Institute | Chen L.-R.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen L.-R.,Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lee S.-C.,Zuoying Armed Forces General Hospital | And 8 more authors.

Downstream effects of prostaglandin-D synthetase (PGDS) in a primary culture of chicken (Gallus gallus) anterior pituitary cells were investigated to study how PGDS regulated laying in hens. Either PGDS downstream metabolite, PGD2 or PGJ2, elevated LHB mRNA and LHB protein levels in dose- and time-dependent manners, and treatment with arachidonic acid (1 μM) alone upregulated 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15-d-PGJ2; derived from PGJ2)/PGJ2, LHB mRNA, and LHB protein levels (P < 0.05) in the primary culture of chicken pituitary anterior cells. Transfection of the plasmid Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein-PGDS plasmid into these cells in medium containing 1 μM arachidonic acid additionally increased 15-d-PGJ2/PGJ2, LHB mRNA, and LHB protein levels (P < 0.05). In the hypothalamus/pituitary gland of laying hens, there was a high correlation (r = 0.64; P < 0.05) between PGDS and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor A (PPARA) mRNA level in a high egg production strain, the L2 Taiwan country chickens. In commercial Single-Comb White Leghorn layers, there were high correlation coefficients between PGDS and PPARA (r = 0.65; P < 0.05) and between PGDS and PPARG (r = 0.67; P < 0.01) mRNA levels. A broad-range PPARs agonist, GW9578 (5 to 500 nM), enhanced LHB mRNA and LHB protein levels (P < 0.05). The PPARA-specific (GW6471) and PPARG-specific (T0070907) antagonists suppressed endogenous LHB mRNA and LHB protein levels (P < 0.05); in addition, both antagonists attenuated arachidonic acid-induced LHB mRNA levels (P < 0.05) and PGDS-induced (in the presence of 1 μM arachidonic acid) LHB mRNA and LHB protein (P < 0.05) levels in the primary culture of chicken anterior pituitary cells. Higher LHB mRNA/LHB protein ratios in PGD2-, PGJ2-, arachidonic acid-, PGDS-, and GW9578-induced as well as GW6471- and T0070907-suppressed anterior pituitary cells suggested that LHB transcription occurred before translation. In conclusion, PGDS induced LHB transcription and subsequent translation via the PPAR signaling pathway. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Kuo C.-Y.,Taiwan Livestock Research Institute | Wang T.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Dai T.-Y.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Wang C.-H.,Taiwan Livestock Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Two mouse models were used to assay the antiallergic effects of the velvet antler (VA) of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) in this study. The results using the ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized mouse model showed that the levels of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE were reduced after VA powder was administrated for 4 weeks. In addition, the ex vivo results indicated that the secretion of T helper cell 1 (Th1), regulatory T (Treg), and Th17 cytokines by splenocytes was significantly increased (P<0.05) when VA powder was administered to the mice. Furthermore, OVA-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated with VA powder showed a strong inhibition of Th2 cytokine and proinflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in the regulatory T-cell population of splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of VA was also observed. All the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including airway inflammation and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were reduced by treatment with VA. These findings support the hypothesis that oral feeding of VA may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans. © 2012 Ching-Yun Kuo et al. Source

Lin D.Y.,Taiwan Livestock Research Institute | Lin D.Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Chiang T.Y.,Taiwan Livestock Research Institute | Chiang T.Y.,National Cheng Kung University | And 9 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research

Primers for eight microsatellites were developed; they successfully amplified DNA from 20 domesticated Formosan Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei). All loci were polymorphic, with 10-19 alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity across loci and samples was 0.310, ranging from 0 to 0.750 at each locus. All loci but one, CU18, deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to excessive homozygosity in these domesticated broodstocks, reflecting inbreeding. These microsatellite loci will be useful, not only for assessment of population structure and genetic variability, but also for conservation of wild deer populations in Taiwan. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

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