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Liou Y.-A.,National Central University | Liou Y.-A.,Taiwan Group on Earth Observations | Liou Y.-A.,Taiwan Geographic Information System Center | Liu H.-L.,Taiwan Group on Earth Observations | And 4 more authors.
Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences | Year: 2015

Taiwan has a Subtropic to Tropical climate, but its precipitation varies widely in response to seasonal effects and weather events such as Typhoon and Meiyu systems. Precipitation must be held back in reservoirs to provide and regulate sufficient water supply. Balancing the irregular precipitation and increasing water demands generates tremendous pressure on water resources management for the water stored in the Shihmen Reservoir, which is the major unitary water supply system in the Greater Taoyuan Area. Such pressure will be significantly enlarged due to the huge 17 billion USD Taoyuan Aerotropolis Project. In earlier days many small artificial ponds (a common terminology in this article), including irrigation ponds, fishery ponds and others, were built to cope with water shortages in Taoyuan County. These small storage ponds provided a solution that resolved seasonal precipitation shortages. Unfortunately, these ponds have been vanishing one after another one due to regional industrialization and urbanization in recent decades and less than 40% of them still remain today. There is great urgency and importance to investigating the link between vanishing ponds and water resources management. Remote sensing technology was used in this study to monitor the environmental consequences in the Taoyuan area by conducting multi-temporal analysis on the changes in water bodies, i.e., ponds. SPOT satellite images taken in 1993, 2003, and 2010 were utilized to analyze and assess the importance of small-scale ponds as water conservation facilities. It was found that, during the seventeen years from 1993 - 2010, the number of irrigation ponds decreased by 35.94%. These ponds can reduce the burden on the major reservoir and increase the water recycling rate if they are properly conserved. They can also improve rainfall interception and surface detention capabilities, and provide another planning advantage for regional water management.


Nguyen A.K.,National Central University | Nguyen A.K.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology | Liou Y.-A.,National Central University | Liou Y.-A.,Taiwan Group on Earth Observations | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2016

Eco-environmental vulnerability assessment is crucial for environmental and resource management. However, evaluation of eco-environmental vulnerability over large areas is a difficult and complex process because it is affected by many variables including hydro-meteorology, topography, land resources, and human activities. The Thua Thien - Hue Province and its largest river system, the Perfume River, are vital to the social-economic development of the north central coastal region of Vietnam, but there is no zoning system for environmental protection in this region. An assessment framework is proposed to evaluate the vulnerable eco-environment in association with 16 variables with 6 of them constructed from Landsat 8 satellite image products. The remaining variables were extracted from digital maps. Each variable was evaluated and spatially mapped with the aid of an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and geographical information system (GIS). An eco-environmental vulnerability map is assorted into six vulnerability levels consisting of potential, slight, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy vulnerabilities, representing 14%, 27%, 17%, 26%, 13%, 3% of the study area, respectively. It is found that heavy and very heavy vulnerable areas appear mainly in the low and medium lands where social-economic activities have been developing rapidly. Tiny percentages of medium and heavy vulnerable levels occur in high land areas probably caused by agricultural practices in highlands, slash and burn cultivation and removal of natural forests with new plantation forests. Based on our results, three ecological zones requiring different development and protection solutions are proposed to restore local eco-environment toward sustainable development. The proposed integrated method of remote sensing (RS), GIS, and AHP to evaluate the eco-environmental vulnerability is useful for environmental protection and proper planning for land use and construction in the future. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Joe-Air J.,National Taiwan University | Tzu-Shiang L.,National Taiwan University | Cheng-Long C.,National Taiwan University | Chia-Pang C.,National Taiwan University | And 5 more authors.
Sensors | Year: 2011

For mission-critical applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) involving extensive battlefield surveillance, medical healthcare, etc., it is crucial to have low-power, new protocols, methodologies and structures for transferring data and information in a network with full sensing coverage capability for an extended working period. The upmost mission is to ensure that the network is fully functional providing reliable transmission of the sensed data without the risk of data loss. WSNs have been applied to various types of mission-critical applications. Coverage preservation is one of the most essential functions to guarantee quality of service (QoS) in WSNs. However, a tradeoff exists between sensing coverage and network lifetime due to the limited energy supplies of sensor nodes. In this study, we propose a routing protocol to accommodate both energy-balance and coverage-preservation for sensor nodes in WSNs. The energy consumption for radio transmissions and the residual energy over the network are taken into account when the proposed protocol determines an energy-efficient route for a packet. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol is able to increase the duration of the on-dutynetwork and provide up to 98.3% and 85.7% of extra service time with 100% sensing coverage ratio comparing with LEACH and the LEACH-Coverage-U protocols, respectively. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Pan T.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Li M.-Y.,Taiwan Geographic Information System Center | Lin Y.-J.,National Taiwan University | Chang T.-J.,National Taiwan University | And 2 more authors.
Hydrological Sciences Journal | Year: 2014

The generation of reliable quantitative precipitation estimations (QPEs) through use of raingauge and radar data is an important issue. This study investigates the impacts of radar QPEs with different densities of raingauge networks on rainfall-runoff processes through a semi-distributed parallel-type linear reservoir rainfall-runoff model. The spatial variation structures of the radar QPE, raingauge QPE and radar-gauge residuals are examined to review the current raingauge network, and a compact raingauge network is identified via the kriging method. An analysis of the large-scale spatial characteristics for use with a hydrological model is applied to investigate the impacts of a raingauge network coupled with radar QPEs on the modelled rainfall-runoff processes. Since the precision in locating the storm centre generally represents how well the large-scale variability is reproduced; the results show not only the contribution of kriging to identify a compact network coupled with radar QPE, but also that spatial characteristics of rainfalls do affect the hydrographs. © 2014 IAHS Press.


Wen T.-H.,National Taiwan University | Jiang J.-A.,National Taiwan University | Sun C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Sun C.-H.,Taiwan Geographic Information System Center | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

Air pollution has become a severe environmental problem due to urbanization and heavy traffic. Monitoring street-level air quality is an important issue, but most official monitoring stations are installed to monitor large-scale air quality conditions, and their limited spatial resolution cannot reflect the detailed variations in air quality that may be induced by traffic jams. By deploying wireless sensors on crossroads and main roads, this study established a pilot framework for a wireless sensor network (WSN)-based real-time monitoring system to understand street-level spatial-temporal changes of carbon monoxide (CO) in urban settings. The system consists of two major components. The first component is the deployment of wireless sensors. We deployed 44 sensor nodes, 40 transmitter nodes and four gateway nodes in this study. Each sensor node includes a signal processing module, a CO sensor and a wireless communication module. In order to capture realistic human exposure to traffic pollutants, all sensors were deployed at a height of 1.5 m on lampposts and traffic signs. The study area covers a total length of 1.5 km of Keelung Road in Taipei City. The other component is a map-based monitoring platform for sensor data visualization and manipulation in time and space. Using intensive real-time street-level monitoring framework, we compared the spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in different time periods. Our results capture four CO concentration peaks throughout the day at the location, which was located along an arterial and nearby traffic sign. The hourly average could reach 5.3 ppm from 5:00 pm to 7:00 pm due to the traffic congestion. The proposed WSN-based framework captures detailed ground information and potential risk of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution. It also provides street-level insights into real-time monitoring for further early warning of air pollution and urban environmental management. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Tsai P.-Y.,Taiwan Geographic Information System Center | Lin Y.-T.,National Taiwan Normal University
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2014

The alternating group graph, which belongs to the class of Cayley graphs, is one of the most versatile interconnection networks for parallel and distributed computing. Cycle embedding is an important issue in evaluating the efficiency of interconnection networks. In this paper, we show that an n-dimensional alternating group graph AGn has the following results, where F is the set of faulty vertices and/or faulty edges in AGn : (1) For n ≥ 4, AGn-F is edge 4-pancyclic if |F| ≤ n − 4; and (2) For n ≥ 3, AGn-F is vertex-pancyclic if |F| ≤ n − 3. All the results are optimal with respect to the number of faulty elements tolerated, and they are improvements over the cycle embedding properties of alternating group graphs proposed previously in several articles. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.

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