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Huang L.H.,Taiwan Agriculture Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute | Chen S.K.,Tainan District Agriculture Research and Extension Station | Huang S.H.,Agricultural Research Institute | Lin M.Y.,Tainan District Agriculture Research and Extension Station | And 4 more authors.
Plant Protection Bulletin | Year: 2013

Red imported fire ants (RIFA, Solenopsis invicta Buren) were first found in Chiayi in October of 2003, and survey and control efforts were begun at the end of October 2004. In order to evaluate the efficacy of red imported fire ant control, a sampling method was used to investigate mound density, with the more dense areas inside infested regions assigned as sampling plots for evaluating the efficacy. Six sampling plots were selected; the plots belonged to six administration districts, including Sanjie Village and Guosing Village of Shueishang Township, as well as Jinlan Village, Longsing Village, Dingpu Village, and Yanguang Village of Jhongpu Township. In the early period of the RIFA survey at Sanjie Village and Jinlan Village, the variance-mean ratio was significantly larger than 1, which meant that the spatial pattern of the RIFA mounds showed clustering and fit a negative binomial distribution. These results indicated that the distribution of RIFA mounds is extremely concentrated; hence, a control strategy focusing on several key infested regions to enhance bait application might be able to obtain good control efficacy. RIFA mound density was significantly decreased due to the cumulative effects of frequent bait application. The number of RIFA mounds was 70 mounds/plot at Sanjie Village and 84.5 mounds/plot at Jinlan Village on December 15th, 2004. One year later, the number of RIFA mounds at the two villages had dropped to 2.9 and 2.5/plot, respectively, and the spatial pattern of the mounds also tended toward a regular distribution. After active control efforts over four years from 2004 to 2008, the control rate for five of the sampling plots reached 100%, while that of Jinlan Village was 96.26%. The results of surveys for all the infested regions in 2007 and 2009 showed that the total area of RIFA infestation was estimated by GIS to be about 65 ha in 2007 and 20 ha in 2009, which was far smaller than the 650 ha estimated in 2006.The above results indicate that the performance of RIFA control efforts in Chiayi has been remarkable, and they also demonstrate that the efficacy of RIFA control in the sampling plots evaluated could be generalized to the control efficacy for all the infested regions in Chiayi. Source


Lin Y.-J.,Animal Health Research Institute | Jinn T.R.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chen Y.-J.,Animal Health Research Institute | Deng M.-C.,Animal Health Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers | Year: 2011

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses in birds and coincident infections in humans have created demand for a cost-effective vaccine to prevent a pandemic of the disease. We report here that Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae can act as a cost-effective bioreactor to produce recombinant HA5 (rH5HA) proteins as an effective vaccine for chickens. Western blot analysis revealed that the 70kDa rH5HA protein and partially cleaved products (40kDa rH5HA1 and 28kDa rH5HA2) were generated in T. ni larvae infected with recombinant baculovirus carrying the H5HA gene. We demonstrated that a single intramuscular injection of homogenates of T. ni larvae containing rH5HA proteins into chickens could induce the production of antibodies with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) capability and stimulate neutralization activity against a lethal H5N1 influenza virus challenge. Furthermore, each vAc-HA5-infected T. ni larva can vaccinate approximately 20-36 chickens and induce with HI titer values of approximately 5.5log2 after 7 weeks implied that this single-shot protocol should be economical and provide adequate protection. These data suggest that the baculovirus-larvae recombinant protein expression system could be a cost-effective platform for vaccine production. © 2010 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Source

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