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Kafle L.,National Taiwan University | Wu W.-J.,National Taiwan University | Kao S.-S.,Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute | Shih C.-J.,National Taiwan University
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Combining biological control and chemical control could be used for controlling red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta, more effectively. Beauveria bassiana F256, a local strain from Taiwan, was evaluated for its efficacy in the control of S. invicta under both laboratory and field conditions. RESULTS: The efficacies of different doses of B. bassiana (Bb) using direct application and bait formulation methods were compared. The number of RIFA workers killed by the direct application of Bb or by bait were significantly higher than those of the control, with different rates of efficacy under laboratory conditions. Under field conditions, the direct application of Bb into RIFA mounds was more efficient in inactivating the mounds than the bait application. CONCLUSION: It was shown that B. bassiana is able to control S. invicta under both laboratory and field conditions and can be used as a biocontrol agent against RIFA in Taiwan. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Vontas J.,University of Crete | Hernandez-Crespo P.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Margaritopoulos J.T.,University of Thessaly | Ortego F.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2011

Tephritid flies attack a large variety of fruits, which constitute highly-priced commodities in many countries. Insecticides have been used extensively for their control. Although resistance development in fruit flies has not kept pace with that in other insects, possibly due to their high mobility and tendency for wide spatial dispersal, recent studies have indicated that selection pressure has now reached the point where resistance is detectable in the field and control may therefore become problematic. The status of resistance to the commonly used insecticides in the most significant Tephritid pests, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae and the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae, is reviewed. Emphasis has been placed on the resistance mechanisms that have been elucidated at the biochemical and molecular level. Prospects for using this knowledge alongside genomic information in Tephritidae to develop novel strategies of potential practical importance for resistance management are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Wang C.-K.,National Health Research Institute | Chang L.W.,National Health Research Institute | Chang H.,Chung Shan Medical University | Yang C.-H.,Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010

Cooking oil fumes (COF) are known to be associated with respiratory diseases and risk of lung cancer. Involvement of trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE), a major component in COF, is suspected. Male CD-1® (ICR) mice were intratracheally instilled with either 8 or 24 mg·kg-1 tt-DDE weekly for 8 weeks. Total numbers and types of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as pathological changes, and inflammatory gene modulations in the lung tissues were assessed. We demonstrated that the number of alveolar macrophages in the BALF was significantly increased in tt-DDE-exposed animals. Histologically, there was a dose-correlated increase in epithelial hyperplasia and granulomatous nodules at the bronchioloalveolar junctions (BAJ). Although both Clara and alveolar type II cells were present in the BAJ lesion, only Clara cells were actively proliferative. However, only alveolar type II cells were found in the BAJ granulomatous nodules. Enhanced accumulation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3), a known pro-carcinogenic factor, was also detected in many alveolar type II cells at the BAJ lesions. As both BAJ hyperplasia and enhanced pSTAT3 accumulation are known risk factors associated with increased lung adenocarcinoma development, these findings suggest that tt-DDE may pose a risk in lung carcinogenesis. Copyright©ERS Journals Ltd 2010. Source

Huang C.-F.,China Medical University at Taichung | Lin Y.-S.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chiang Z.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Lu S.-Y.,Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2014

We previously observed a higher incidence of congenital malformations in the fetuses of dams fed an oxidized frying oil (OFO)-containing diet during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that, during pregnancy, maternal ingestion of OFO, specifically the oxidized components (i.e. the polar fraction), modulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity, altering the metabolism of retinoic acid (RA), a well-characterized morphogen, resulting in teratogenesis. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups which, from d1 (conception) to d18, were fed a diet containing 10 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (SO), OFO or the non-polar (NP) or polar (PO) fraction of OFO. Reporter assays testing the transactivity of PPARα and AhR showed that free fatty acids from OFO, specifically the PO fraction, up-regulated PPARα transactivity and down-regulated AhR transactivity. In vivo study showed that the PO fraction group had a significantly higher number of dead fetuses and resorptions per litter than the SO and NP fraction groups. The incidence of abnormalities in terms of gross morphology and skeletal ossification of the fetus was greatest in the PO fraction group, followed by the OFO group, both values being significantly higher than in the other two groups. Hepatic expression of genes encoding enzymes associated with RA synthesis and catabolism in dams and fetuses was differentially affected by PO fraction assault. We conclude that OFO-mediated teratogenesis is associated with disturbed RA metabolism in the dams and fetuses caused, at least in part, by modulation of PPARα and AhR transactivity by the oxidized components in OFO. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Hsu J.-C.,National Taiwan University | Chien T.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Hu C.-C.,National Taiwan University | Chen M.-J.M.,National Taiwan University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Insecticide resistance has recently become a critical concern for control of many insect pest species. Genome sequencing and global quantization of gene expression through analysis of the transcriptome can provide useful information relevant to this challenging problem. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests, and recently it has been used as a target for studies of genetic mechanisms related to insecticide resistance. However, prior to this study, the molecular data available for this species was largely limited to genes identified through homology. To provide a broader pool of gene sequences of potential interest with regard to insecticide resistance, this study uses whole transcriptome analysis developed through de novo assembly of short reads generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The transcriptome of B. dorsalis was initially constructed using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology. Qualified reads were assembled into contigs and potential splicing variants (isotigs). A total of 29,067 isotigs have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr) protein database from NCBI, and 11,073 of these correspond to distinct D. melanogaster proteins in the RefSeq database. Approximately 5,546 isotigs contain coding sequences that are at least 80% complete and appear to represent B. dorsalis genes. We observed a strong correlation between the completeness of the assembled sequences and the expression intensity of the transcripts. The assembled sequences were also used to identify large numbers of genes potentially belonging to families related to insecticide resistance. A total of 90 P450-, 42 GST-and 37 COE-related genes, representing three major enzyme families involved in insecticide metabolism and resistance, were identified. In addition, 36 isotigs were discovered to contain target site sequences related to four classes of resistance genes. Identified sequence motifs were also analyzed to characterize putative polypeptide translational products and associate them with specific genes and protein functions. © 2012 Hsu et al. Source

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