Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station

Taitung City, Taiwan

Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station

Taitung City, Taiwan

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Chen J.-J.,Tajen University | Tsai C.-S.,Tajen University | Hwang T.-L.,Chang Gung University | Shieh P.-C.,Tajen University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Six new sesquiterpenes, curculonone A (1), curculonone B (2), curculonone C (3), curculonone D (4), 6α-hydroxycurcumanolide A (5), and 1,10-dehydro-10-deoxy-9-oxozedoarondiol (6), have been isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, together with 19 known compounds. The structures of these new compounds were determined through spectroscopic and MS analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 12, 15, 16, and 23 exhibited inhibition (IC50 ≤ 18.22 μM) of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils in response to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). Compounds 5, 12-16, and 23 inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC50 values ≤ 14.28 μM. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Huang T.C.,Kaohsiung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Hsu Y.T.,Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Chou Y.C.,Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station
Plant Protection Bulletin | Year: 2010

A complex relationship exists between climate change and plant pest management. Available studies have been based on the effects of limited environmental factors on host plants, pests, and/or their interactions. The lack of knowledge makes it difficult to predict the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warned in its 2007 report that global warming and increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide can potentially cause sea level rise, widespread changes in precipitation, as well as more frequent extreme weather events. In Taiwan, average land temperature has risen by 1.3°C from 1901 to 2000, which is twice the Earth's average warming rate. The rapid increase in nighttime temperature has resulted in a decrease of difference between daytime and nighttime temperatures. Changes in not only temperatures but also carbon dioxide concentrations, pest epidemics, and weather conditions are known to affect rice yields. Here we discuss the impacts of climate change on several important rice diseases in Taiwan, focusing on the influence of variable weather conditions, higher carbon dioxide concentration, and differential nutrient deposition on the blast disease, bakanae disease, sheath blight, brown spot, and bacterial leaf blight of rice. In view of a higher risk of yield losses caused by these damaging diseases in the near future, we propose to conduct an integrated strategy combining resistance breeding, cultural practices, and coordinate monitoring for pest management. Disease severity can be significantly reduced if proper control measurements are applied the right way at the right time, with consideration of the progress of individual diseases in specific weather conditions. To strengthen food security in an era of climate change, future pest management should include the collection and maintenance of long-term weather data, and the improvement of timeliness and accuracy in disease forecasting. Understanding how different weather factors affect plant- pest interactions is also important. Research topics regarding the effects of individual environmental factors on the life cycles, sexual reproduction, adaptation, population dynamics, dissemination, evolution, and ecology of key pests should be further explored in depth.


Chen J.-J.,Tajen University | Wang T.-C.,Tajen University | Yang C.-K.,Tajen University | Liao H.-R.,Chang Gung University | And 5 more authors.
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2013

Two new pterosin sesquiterpenes, (2S)-13-hydroxypterosin A (1) and (2S,3S)-12-hydroxypterosin Q (2), were isolated from the whole plants of Pteris ensiformis, together with six known compounds. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined through extensive 1D/2D-NMR and MS analyses. Compound 2 exhibited antitubercular activity (MIC 6.25 μg/ml) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in vitro. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.


PubMed | Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extention Station, Institute of Biomedical science, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Database : the journal of biological databases and curation | Year: 2016

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play critical roles in plant development and stress-response regulation, and they frequently display multi-targeting characteristics. The control of defined rice phenotypes occurs through multiple genes; however, evidence demonstrating the relationship between agronomic traits and miRNA expression profiles is lacking. In this study, we investigated eight yield-related traits in 187 local rice cultivars and profiled the expression levels of 193 miRNAs in these cultivars using microarray analyses. By integrating the miRBase database, the rice annotation project database, and the miRanda and psRNATarget web servers, we constructed a database (RiceATM) that can be employed to investigate the association between rice agronomic traits and miRNA expression. The functions of this platform include phenotype selection, sample grouping, microarray data pretreatment, statistical analysis and target gene predictions. To demonstrate the utility of RiceATM, we used the database to identify four miRNAs associated with the heading date and validated their expression trends in the cultivars with early or late heading date by real-time PCR. RiceATM is a useful tool for researchers seeking to characterize the role of certain miRNAs for a specific phenotype and discover potential biomarkers for breeding or functional studies.Database URL: http://syslab3.nchu.edu.tw/rice/.


Tsai J.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsuang B.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Kuo P.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Tu C.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

Field measurements at various wetland ecosystems were conducted to investigate the coefficients b for different scalars in the relaxed eddy accumulation method. These measurements were performed at paddy, marsh and lagoon fields using the eddy covariance system to collect data with a sampling rate of 10 Hz. Without the application of a wind deadband, the mean median values of b were found to be 0.55 for paddy, 0.57 for marsh and 0.56 for lagoon for all scalar quantities under unstable and near-neutral conditions. However, the median values of b under stable conditions steadily increase with stability. The results of estimated b were well described by proposed relationships as a function of the dimensionless stability parameter z/L. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, temperature and water vapor showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day where good scalar correlations were observed at paddy and marsh during daytime, but poor scalar correlations were observed at lagoon. With the application of wind deadband, the reductions of the normalized b factors, b REA, related to the increase of deadband values were evaluated and the results were compared with the reported relationships in the literature. The relative minimal variability of the normalized b REA was found when the wind deadband was equal to 0.8. From the diurnal variation of b REA, the relative maximum values of b REA factors occurred around noon, and lower values were observed in the early morning and late afternoon. Daily median b 0 values for various scalars under unstable and neutral conditions over paddy from the beginning to the end of the study period were used to verify the independence of the variations in surface roughness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gale S.W.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Maeda A.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Chen C.-I.,Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Yukawa T.,Tsukuba Botanical Garden
Journal of Plant Research | Year: 2010

An understanding of the extent to which reproductive strategy and seed dispersal lead to the structuring of genetic diversity in space is required when planning measures towards the conservation of endangered plant species. In this study, genetic structure in the endangered terrestrial orchid Nervilia nipponica was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms following extensive sampling throughout the species' range in Japan and intensive sampling at a single population. Limited diversity was found within the species as a whole, but significant structuring was detected between populations. One genotype was common to two widely separated sites, possibly indicative of long-range dispersal. Significant structure was also detected at the intensively sampled site, as a result of the presence of two distinct putative clones. These findings are consistent with observations of the species' ability to set seed autogamously and propagate vegetatively. Given the strong colonising capability inferred for the species, attention should focus on identifying and securing habitat conditions conducive to seed germination and seedling establishment in the development of a conservation strategy. As presently circumscribed, N. nipponica is shown to comprise two polyphyletic taxa, both endemic to Japan, and both distinct from N. taiwaniana, a species that some authors have considered conspecific. © 2010 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.


Chung C.-L.,National Taiwan University | Huang S.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Huang Y.-C.,National Taiwan University | Tzean S.-S.,National Taiwan University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner) Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR) regions in Daxi42 with the lowcoverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98%) of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s), which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-toroot contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan.We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination. © 2015 Chung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Tsai C.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Chen Y.-F.,National Taiwan University | Lu H.-C.,National Taiwan University | Lin C.-H.,National Taiwan University | And 6 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

Foehn is one of the common climate phenomena in Taiwan because of geographical factors. The foehn is associated with high temperature and low humidity, which often leads to plant death and even causes serious forest fires. The natural disaster relief fund in Taiwan has covered the loss caused by the foehn. However, no monitoring system has been developed for the foehn, so farmers are not able to immediately obtain foehn-related information and activate necessary schemes for disaster reduction. The research aims at foehn detection and uses the wireless sensor network technology to build a real-time system to monitor foehn. Since the characteristics of wireless sensor networks are low costs, unmanned control and transmission distance up to 80 meters, it is feasible to apply the networks to environmental monitoring. When foehn occurs, the wireless communication devices in the proposed monitoring system will transmit the temperature and humidity information collected by monitoring stations to the gateway module, and sprinkler module action immediately for cooling and increasing humidity to protect the plants from pericarp damage or fruit drop phenomenon caused by foehn. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station and Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner) Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR) regions in Daxi42 with the low-coverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98%) of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s), which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-to-root contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan. We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination.


Bailey R.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Chang N.-T.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Lai P.-Y.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Hsu T.C.,Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2010

Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), an invasive scale insect, attacks different species of Cycas (Cycadales: Cycadaceae) in Taiwan. Development, survival and fecundity of A. yasumatsui were studied on Cycas taitungensis at 24°C, 70±10% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h under laboratory conditions. Data on the life history of A. yasumatsui were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table, to address variable development rates among individuals and between sexes. The egg incubation time was 7.26days for both females and males and female nymphal development duration was 28.65days. The development duration of male nymphal stages+pupal stage was 19days. The total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) was 35.92days. The maximum longevity of female adults was 67days and 1day for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) was 0.100day-1, the finite rate of increase (r) was 1.11day-1, the net reproduction rate (Ro) was 111.51 offspring /individual, and the mean generation time (T) was 47.24day. Life table data can be used to project population growth, to design mass rearing programs and to establish management tactics to control insect pests. © 2010 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.

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