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Liaw Y.-P.,Chung Shan Medical University | Ting T.-F.,University of Illinois at Springfield | Ho C.-C.,Taipei Physical Education College | Chiou Z.-Y.,Chung Shan Medical University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

We aimed to explore whether lung cancer associated with air pollutants, specifically nitric oxide (NO), has cell type specificity. Both Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression between the air quality indices (SO2, CO, O3, NO, and NO2) and age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of lung cancer by two major pathological types were calculated for both genders. We conducted 4 levels of analyses based on different NO concentrations. We also used Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer. Regardless of gender, the influences of SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 were not statistically significant. There was a dose-response relationship between NO concentrations and adenocarcinoma (AC) incidence rates. On the other hand, none of the air pollutants had a significant impact on the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence rates for both males and females. The Poisson regression results showed that with the NO concentration ≤5.59ppb as the baseline, the risk for AC among males at 5.5913.54ppb (95% CI, 1.36-2.01). The test for trend was statistically significant at P<0.001. Similar results were observed among females. On the contrary, for SCC, we found NO did not pose any significant danger to males and females. Conclusion: Our results showed that there was a dose-response relationship between gaseous NO concentrations and lung AC incidence rates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chen C.-H.,National Chiayi University | Chen C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University | Chen H.-L.,National Chiayi University | And 3 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2011

Purpose: This study investigated whether flexibility training would attenuate muscle damage induced by maximal eccentric exercise. Methods: Thirty untrained young men were allocated to static stretching (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), or control group (n = 10 per group). The SS consisted of 30 sets of a 30-s standard SS with a 30-s rest between sets, and the PNF included 5 sets of the 30-s standard SS followed by 3 sets of three "contract-relax-agonist-contract" procedures. These were performed three times a week for 8 wk, and all subjects performed six sets of 10 maximal isokinetic (30°•s) lengthening contractions of the knee flexors after the 8-wk training or 8 wk after the baseline measures (control). Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage before and for 5 d after the eccentric exercise were compared among the groups. Results: The range of motion (ROM) of the hip joint increased by 25°, and the optimum angle of the knee flexors shifted (P < 0.05) to a longer muscle length by 10° after training, without significant differences between SS and PNF. No significant changes in these variables were evident for the control group. Compared with the control group, the SS and PNF groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) smaller decreases and faster recovery of knee flexor muscle strength and smaller changes in optimum angle, ROM, muscle soreness, and plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration without significant differences between the groups. The preeccentric exercise ROM or optimum angle was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the changes in the muscle damage markers. Conclusions: These results suggest that both SS and PNF training are effective in attenuating eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and that flexible muscles are less susceptible to the damage. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

Shanmugam K.R.,Sri Venkateswara University | Mallikarjuna K.,Taipei Physical Education College | Nishanth K.,New Jersey Institute of Technology | Kuo C.H.,Taipei Physical Education College | Reddy K.S.,Sri Venkateswara University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The role of oxidative stress has been reported in various diabetic complications. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of ginger, a medicinal plant, on the tissue antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. An increased reactive oxygen species and insufficient antioxidant activity are associated with diabetes mellitus, which is mainly responsible for diabetic pathogenesis. The role of ginger as antioxidant markers of liver and kidney were investigated. The antioxidant effect of the ginger was compared with glibenclamide, a well-known hypoglycaemic drug. The diabetic rats exhibited lower activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GP. x), and glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content and higher level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatic and renal tissues as compared with normal rats. The activities of all parameters were found to be increased, except MDA in ginger-treated diabetic rats, in hepatic and renal tissues. Ginger supplementation, for 30 days to diabetic rats, resulted in significant dose-dependent hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activities. These findings suggest that ginger treatment exerts a therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress, and hepatic and renal damage. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Shanmugam K.R.,Sri Venkateswara University | Shanmugam K.R.,National University of Malaysia | Mallikarjuna K.,Taipei Physical Education College | Kesireddy N.,New Jersey Institute of Technology | Sathyavelu Reddy K.,Sri Venkateswara University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger on oxidative stress markers in the mitochondrial fractions of cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), hippocampus (HC) and hypothalamus (HT) of diabetic rats. Diabetes exacerbates neuronal injury induced by hyperglycemia mediated oxidative damage. A marked decrease in anti-oxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the diabetic rats. Decreased activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rats were augmented on oral administration of ginger. Moreover, ginger administration depleted the MDA level, which was earlier increased in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that ginger exhibit a neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain anti-oxidant defense mechanisms and down regulating the MDA levels to the normal levels in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be used as therapeutic agent in preventing complications in diabetic patients. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Cheng C.-F.,National Taiwan Normal University | Lin H.-M.,Taipei Physical Education College | Lee C.-L.,Yu Da University | Wang C.-Y.,National Taiwan Normal University
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the hyperbolic relationship between power output and time to exhaustion (work - time and power - [1/time] models) could be estimated from a modified version of a three-minute all-out rowing test (3-min RT), and to investigate the test-retest reliability of the 3-min RT. Eighteen male rowers volunteered to participate in this study and underwent an incremental exercise test (IRT), three constant-work rate tests to establish the critical power (CP) and the curvature constant (W′), and two 3-min RTs against a fixed resistance to estimate the end-test power (EP) and work-done-above-EP (WEP) on a rowing ergometer. Peak (VO 2peak) and maximal (VO 2max) oxygen uptakes were calculated as the highest 30 s average achieved during the 3-min RT and IRT tests. The results showed that EP and WEP determinations, based on the 3-min RT, have moderate reproducibility (P = 0.002). EP (269 ± 39 W) was significantly correlated with CP (work - time, 272 ± 30 W; power - [1/time], 276 ± 32 W) (P = 0.000), with no significant differences observed between the EP and CP values (P = 0.474). However, WEP did not significantly correlate with W′ (P = 0.254), and was significantly higher than the W′ values. There was a significant correlation between the VO 2peak (60 ± 3 ml kg -1 min -1) and VO 2max (61 ± 4 ml kg -1 min -1) (P = 0.003). These results indicate that the 3-min RT has moderate reliability, and is able to appropriately estimate the aerobic capacity in rowers, particularly for the CP and VO 2 max parameters. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

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