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Tsai W.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Tsai W.-H.,Taipei Medical University | Shih C.-H.,Taipei Medical University | Wu H.-Y.,National Yang Ming University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2012

Differentiation therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but such treatment also causes differentiation syndrome (DS) by inducing APL cell infiltration into alveolar spaces. The mechanism underlying the clearance of infiltrated APL cells has not been investigated in detail. Lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4) is an important anti-inflammatory mediator during the resolution of inflammation. In this study, the role of LXA 4 in the cell-cell interaction between alveolar macrophages (AMφ{symbol}; NR8383 cells) and APL NB4 cells was investigated and found that conditioned medium (CM) harvested from ATRA-treated NR8383 (ATRA-NR8383) cells was able to induce the transmigration of ATRA-NB4 cells. However, the pro-migratory activity of CM was attenuated progressively when ATRA-NR8383 cells were co-cultured with increased cell dosages of apoptotic NB4 cells. A significantly higher amount of LXA 4 was released into the CM by ATRA-NR8383 cells when they were co-cultured with apoptotic ATRA-NB4 cells. Expression of a receptor for LXA 4 (ALX/FPR2) was enhanced in both ATRA-NB4 cells and ATRA-NR8383 cells. Exogenous LXA 4 treatment was able to inhibit the transmigration of ATRA-NB4 cells and induce the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells by ATRA-NR8383 cells. The anti-migratory activity of exogenous LXA 4 was attenuated by pre-treating ATRA-NB4 cells with an ALX/FPR2 inhibitor. We conclude that AMφ{symbol}-derived LXA 4 plays an important role in the interaction between AMφ{symbol} and APL cells and that this contributes to clearance of apoptotic APL cells. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Yen M.-H.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Yen H.-K.,Taipei Municipal Jianguo High School | Yu C.,National Ilan University
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems | Year: 2015

Fan proposed a set of hyperuniversal switch blocks (HUSBs), called Fan's (4, , w)-HUSBs in this paper. He also proved that his design with w less than 6 was optimum. That is, they used the least switches to achieve hyperuniversal routability. However, we find a counter example to show that there is an unnecessary switch in Fan's (4, 4)-HUSB. Namely, we propose a new (4, 4)-HUSB, water-molecule-shaped switch block (WMSB), proving (4, 4)-WMSB with 24 switches is optimal. Furthermore, we also propose optimal (4, 7)-WMSB, which is a (4, 7)-HUSB with 42 switches. © 1982-2012 IEEE. Source

Chen C.-Y.,Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology | Ho A.,National Taiwan University | Huang H.-Y.,Taipei Municipal Jianguo High School | Juan H.-F.,Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology | And 2 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network offers a conceptual framework for better understanding the functional organization of the proteome. However, the intricacy of network complexity complicates comprehensive analysis. Here, we adopted a phylogenic grouping method combined with force-directed graph simulation to decompose the human PPI network in a multi-dimensional manner. This network model enabled us to associate the network topological properties with evolutionary and biological implications. First, we found that ancient proteins occupy the core of the network, whereas young proteins tend to reside on the periphery. Second, the presence of age homophily suggests a possible selection pressure may have acted on the duplication and divergence process during the PPI network evolution. Lastly, functional analysis revealed that each age group possesses high specificity of enriched biological processes and pathway engagements, which could correspond to their evolutionary roles in eukaryotic cells. More interestingly, the network landscape closely coincides with the subcellular localization of proteins. Together, these findings suggest the potential of using conceptual frameworks to mimic the true functional organization in a living cell. Source

Wang T.-C.,Taipei Municipal Jianguo High School
Proceedings - 2015 International Conference on Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineering, LaTiCE 2015 | Year: 2015

The concept of binary, which is the basis of how computer works, is often taught in Taiwan's high school computer courses as the introductory unit of the class 'Introduction to Computers'. In the past, teachers used to lecture through binary concepts such as the decimal binary conversion, ASCII code transformation, and several traditional courses. However, most students did not know why they needed to learn binary concepts, and seemed less interested in learning. To enhance the effectiveness of learning, we incorporated some examples corresponding to each binary concept to link students' life experiences to the concepts in order to make learning meaningful. In this paper, we will share our teaching materials for the binary concept from the course 'Introduction to Computers'. The lesson starts from how computer stores values, text or image data to introduce basic concepts of binary data interpretation and hex conversion. Afterwards, a combination of simple logic gates adder instance is introduced to guide students to learn how to perform a binary compute operation. Finally, software CPU simulator is covered to allow students to learn and visualize how computer uses binary data and basic operations to perform some specific compute functions. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Tan W.-H.,National Taiwan University | Liu T.-H.,Taipei Municipal Jianguo High School | Lin Y.K.,National Taiwan University | Hsu Y.-F.,National Taiwan Normal University
Zoology | Year: 2014

Anthropogenic introduction of a plant species may cause novel encounters between the plant and local herbivores, and initiate evolutionary changes in host plant usage by herbivores. Until recently the endemic aquatic plant Hygrophila pogonocalyx was endangered and had a restricted distribution in Taiwan. Massive restoration efforts since 1997 have led to an expansion of the plant's distribution and a novel encounter between it and an Asian butterfly, the chocolate pansy, Junonia iphita (Nymphalidae). This butterfly appears to have colonized H. pogonocalyx, switching from its original host, Strobilanthes penstemonoides var. formosana. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the utilization of H. pogonocalyx as a host plant has initiated a differentiation between butterflies using the novel and the original hosts. To this purpose we collected butterflies from patches of the two host plants which grow sympatrically. We tested oviposition preference for the two hosts and larval performance on them. Female adults exhibited distinct oviposition preference toward the host plant their mothers preferred. Offspring showed greater survivorship and pupal weight when fed on the host plant their mothers preferred. Male adults displayed territorial behaviors on the host plant that their mothers had preferred. Finally, the survival rate of offspring produced from cross-mating between individuals with different host plant preference was lower than that of non-hybrids. Taken together, we suggest that genetic differentiation has occurred between individuals preferring H. pogonocalyx versus S. penstemonoides as host plants via host shifting. This process was likely induced by the mass restoration of the formerly rare and endangered plant species. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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