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Tainan, Taiwan

Shen P.-C.,Tainan Hospital | Lu C.-S.,National Cheng Kung University | Shiau A.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee C.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 2 more authors.
Human Gene Therapy | Year: 2013

Immune cells are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). CD4+ T cells were activated during the onset of OA and induced macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1γ expression and subsequent osteoclast formation. We evaluated the effects of local knockdown of MIP-1γ in a mouse OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection. The mouse macrophage cell lines and osteoclast-like cells generated from immature hematopoietic monocyte/macrophage progenitors of murine bone marrow were cocultured with either receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) or CD4+ T cells. The levels of MIP-1γ and RANKL in cells and mice were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K staining. OA was induced in one hind-leg knee joint of B6 mice. Lentiviral vector encoding MIP-1γ small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and control vector were individually injected intra-articularly into the knee joints, which were histologically assessed for manifestations of OA. The expression of MIP-1γ and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and the infiltration of CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and osteoclastogenesis in tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry. CD4+ T cells were involved in OA by inducing MIP-1γ expression in osteoclast progenitors and the subsequent osteoclast formation. Neutralizing MIP-1γ with a specific antibody abolishes RANKL-stimulated and CD4+ T-cell-stimulated osteoclast formation. MIP-1γ levels were significantly higher in synovium and the chondro-osseous junction of joints 90 days postsurgery. The number of infiltrated CD4+ T cells and macrophages and IL-1β expression were reduced in the synovial tissues of mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA. Histopathological examinations revealed that mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA had less severe OA than control mice had, as well as decreased osteoclast formation and MMP-13 expression. Locally inhibiting MIP-1γ expression may ameliorate disease progression and provide a new OA therapy. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Shen P.-C.,Tainan Hospital | Wu C.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Jou I.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee C.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 4 more authors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2011

Objective: Immune cells are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the effects of T helper (Th) cells, which induce the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1γ), on the progression of OA. Design: Using anterior cruciate ligament-transection (ACLT), we induced OA in one hind-leg knee joint of B6 mice. The CD4+ T cells from splenocytes and synovium were flow-cytometrically and immunochemically evaluated, respectively. The knee joints were histologically assessed for manifestations of OA. MIP-1γ levels and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the knee joints were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblotting assays, respectively; osteoclastogenesis was detected by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The inflammatory responses and MIP-1γ expression were examined using immunohistochemistry. Results: The number of CD4+ T cells and the expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increased during OA onset (30 days after ACLT) and then decreased at a later stage of OA (90 days after ACLT). Tissue damage induced by CD4+ T cells was evident at the later stage. The activation of CD4+ T cells induced the expression of MIP-1γ and NF-κB. The expression of MIP-1γ can be detected in synovium which CD4+ T cells were infiltrated. The increased MIP-1γ expression caused an increase in the number of osteoclasts in joints. The regulation of CD4+ T cells was accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression. Histopathological examinations revealed that CD4+ T cell knockout (CD4-/-) mice had less expression of MIP-1γ and slower cartilage degeneration than control mice had. Conclusions: CD4+ T cells were activated during the onset of OA, but cartilage damage was more prominent at a later stage. CD4+ T cells were involved in the pathogenesis of OA: they induced MIP-1γ expression and subsequent osteoclast formation. © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.

Hsieh J.-L.,Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology | Shen P.-C.,Tainan Hospital | Shiau A.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Jou I.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2010

In osteoarthritis, angiogenesis, which occurs in the osteochondral junction and synovium, may accelerate inflammation and contribute to the severity of the disease. We used anterior cruciate ligament-transection (ACLT) to investigate the therapeutic effect of an angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), in a rat model of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was induced in Wistar rats in the knee of one hind leg. After ACLT, AdTSP-1 (adenoviral vector encoding mouse TSP-1) was intraarticularly injected into the knee joints. Transgene expression, angiogenesis, and inflammatory responses in the knee joints were examined. They were also assessed morphologically, radiographically, and histologically for manifestations of disease. The levels of TSP-1 peaked on day 3 and were substantially maintained for at least 9 days after AdTSP-1 infection. Adenovirus-mediated gene expression was detected in the synovial membrane and chondrocytes. TSP-1 gene transfer induced transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production, but it reduced microvessel density, macrophage infiltration, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels. Gross morphological and histopathological examinations revealed that rats treated with AdTSP-1 had less severe osteoarthritis than controls. In vivo adenovirus-mediated TSP-1 gene transfer significantly reduced microvessel density, inflammation, and suppressed the progression of osteoarthritis. This study provides potential applications of TSP-1 gene delivery for treating osteoarthritis. © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Tabbada K.A.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Tabbada K.A.,University of Cambridge | Trejaut J.,Transfusion Medicine Research Laboratory | Loo J.-H.,Transfusion Medicine Research Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of the Philippine population, and this is an important gap in our understanding of Southeast Asian and Oceanic prehistory. Here we describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in 423 Philippine samples and analyze them in the context of the genetic diversity of other Southeast Asian populations. The majority of Philippine mtDNA types are shared with Taiwanese aboriginal groups and belong to haplogroups of postglacial and pre-Neolithic origin that have previously been identified in East Asian and Island Southeast Asian populations. Analysis of hypervariable segment I sequence variation within individual mtDNA haplogroups indicates a general decrease in the diversity of the most frequent types (B4a1a, E1a1a, and M7c3c) from the Taiwanese aborigines to the Philippines and Sulawesi, although calculated standard error measures overlap for these populations. This finding, together with the geographical distribution of ancestral and derived haplotypes of the B4a1a subclade including the Polynesian Motif, is consistent with southward dispersal of these lineages Out of Taiwan via the Philippines to Near Oceania and Polynesia. In addition to the mtDNA components shared with Taiwanese aborigines, complete sequence analyses revealed a minority of lineages in the Philippines that share their origins-possibly dating back to the Paleolithic-with haplogroups from Indonesia and New Guinea. Other rare lineages in the Philippines have no closely related types yet identified elsewhere.

Tsai Y.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsiao W.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Yang H.-B.,National Cheng Kung University | Cheng H.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | And 3 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Background To eradicate Helicobacter pylori before the occurrence of precancerous changes is important to prevent gastric carcinogenesis. Aim To validate whether the corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI) can serve as an early marker to identify the H. pylori-infected patients at risk of gastric carcinogenesis. Methods This study enrolled 188 subjects, including 43 noncardiac gastric cancer patients, 63 of their first-degree relatives and 82 sex- and age-matched duodenal ulcer patients as controls. All received endoscopy to provide topographic gastric specimens to test for H. pylori infection and its related histological features, translated into the operative link on gastritis assessment (OLGA), operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages, and the presence of CGI. Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) was assessed by immunohistochemistry staining of trefoil factor 2. Results Gastric cancer patients had higher prevalence of CGI and OLGIM stage II-IV, but not OLGA stage II-IV, than the controls (P = 0.001, OR = 3.4[95% CI: 1.4-8.1] for CGI; OR = 5.0[95% CI: 2.0-12.8] for OLGIM). In patients with the combined presence of CGI and OLGIM stage II-IV, the risk of gastric cancer increased to 9.8 (P < 0.001). The first-degree relatives of the gastric cancer patients had a higher rate of the presence of CGI, but not OLGA or OLGIM stage II-IV than the duodenal ulcer controls (P = 0.001). Of the first-degree relatives, the presence of CGI increased the risk of SPEM (P = 0.003, OR = 5.5[95% CI: 1.8-17.0]). Conclusion The corpus-predominant gastritis index, which is highly correlated to SPEM, may serve as an early marker to identify the H. pylori-infected patients at a higher risk of gastric cancer. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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