Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station

Tainan County, Taiwan

Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station

Tainan County, Taiwan
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Wang S.-S.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Chen K.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Lin Y.-R.,National Taiwan University | Chen R.-K.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station
Euphytica | Year: 2017

A japonica variety, Koshihikari, is known to have favorable eating quality. Two rice backcross inbred lines (BILs) developed from Koshihikari exhibited significantly different glossiness of cooked rice (GCR), an eating quality trait measured using the Toyo-taste meter. Genetic analysis indicated that the genetic composition of these two BILs differed only on the short arm of chromosome 6, which led to the identification of the qGCR6 locus. Through high-resolution genetic mapping, the qGCR6 locus was further delimited to a 43.9 kb chromosomal region containing ten putative genes. The DNA marker SNP2175, which tightly links to qGCR6, was developed and can be used in marker-assisted breeding programs. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Lu H.-C.,National Taiwan University | Hsieh M.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsieh M.-H.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Chen C.-E.,National Taiwan University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2012

The large number of species and worldwide spread of species of Orchidaceae indicates their successful adaptation to environmental stresses. Thus, orchids provide rich resources to study how plants have evolved to cope with stresses. This report describes our improvement of our previously reported orchid virus-induced gene silencing vector, pCymMV-pro60, with a modified Gateway cloning system which requires only one recombination and can be inoculated by agroinfiltration. We cloned 1,700 DNA fragments, including 187 predicted transcription factors derived from an established expression sequence tag library of orchid, into pCymMV-Gateway. Phalaenopsis aphrodite was inoculated with these vectors that contained DNA fragments of the 187 predicted transcription factors. The viral vector initially triggered the expression of the salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defense responses and later induced silencing of the endogenous target transcription factor genes. By monitoring the expression of the SA-related plant defense marker PhaPR1 (homolog of PR1), we identified a gene, PhaTF15, involved in the expression of PhaPR1. Knockdown of PhaTF15 by virus-induced gene silencing and by transient delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) reduced expression of the orchid homolog of the conserved positive defense regulator NPR1, PhaNPR1. Cymbidium mosaic virus also accumulated to high levels with knockdown of PhaTF15 by transient delivery of dsRNA. We demonstrated efficient cloning and screening strategies for high-throughput analysis of orchid and identify a gene, PhaTF15, involved in regulation of SA-related plant defense. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.

PubMed | Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extention Station, Institute of Biomedical science, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Database : the journal of biological databases and curation | Year: 2016

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play critical roles in plant development and stress-response regulation, and they frequently display multi-targeting characteristics. The control of defined rice phenotypes occurs through multiple genes; however, evidence demonstrating the relationship between agronomic traits and miRNA expression profiles is lacking. In this study, we investigated eight yield-related traits in 187 local rice cultivars and profiled the expression levels of 193 miRNAs in these cultivars using microarray analyses. By integrating the miRBase database, the rice annotation project database, and the miRanda and psRNATarget web servers, we constructed a database (RiceATM) that can be employed to investigate the association between rice agronomic traits and miRNA expression. The functions of this platform include phenotype selection, sample grouping, microarray data pretreatment, statistical analysis and target gene predictions. To demonstrate the utility of RiceATM, we used the database to identify four miRNAs associated with the heading date and validated their expression trends in the cultivars with early or late heading date by real-time PCR. RiceATM is a useful tool for researchers seeking to characterize the role of certain miRNAs for a specific phenotype and discover potential biomarkers for breeding or functional studies.Database URL: http://syslab3.nchu.edu.tw/rice/.

PubMed | Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, National Chiayi University and Council of Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2016

Hydrogen cyanamide (HC) and pruning (P) have frequently been used to break dormancy in grapevine floral buds. However, the exact underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study aimed to address the early mode of action of these treatments on accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and expression of related genes in the dormancy breaking buds of grapevine in the summer.The budbreak rates induced by pruning (P), hydrogen cyanamide (HC), pruning plus hydrogen cyanamide (PHC) and water (control) after 8days were 33, 53, 95, and 0%, respectively. Clearly, HC was more effective in stimulating grapevine budbreak and P further enhanced its potency. In situ staining of longitudinal bud sections after 12h of treatments detected high levels of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) accumulated in the buds treated with PHC, compared with HC or P alone. The amounts of ROS and NO accumulated were highly correlated with the rates of budbreak among these treatments, highlighting the importance of a rapid, transient accumulation of sublethal levels of ROS and RNS in dormancy breaking. Microarray analysis revealed specific alterations in gene expression in dormancy breaking buds induced by P, HC and PHC after 24h of treatment. Relative to control, PHC altered the expression of the largest number of genes, while P affected the expression of the least number of genes. PHC also exerted a greater intensity in transcriptional activation of these genes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that alteration in expression of ROS related genes is the major factor responsible for budbreak. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the transient expression dynamics of 12 specific genes related to ROS generation and scavenge during the 48h treatment with PHC.Our results suggest that rapid accumulation of ROS and NO at early stage is important for dormancy release in grapevine in the summer, and the identification of the commonly expressed specific genes among the treatments allowed the construction of the signal transduction pathway related to ROS/RNS metabolism during dormancy release. The rapid accumulation of a sublethal level of ROS/RNS subsequently induces cell wall loosening and expansion for bud sprouting.

Hsieh M.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsieh M.-H.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Lu H.-C.,National Taiwan University | Pan Z.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2013

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a good way to study floral gene functions of orchids, especially those with a long life cycle. To explore the applicability and improve viral silencing efficiency for application of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV)-induced gene silencing, we examined several variables, including the optimal length of the DNA fragment, the effect of developmental maturation status of inflorescence, and suitable inoculation sites. A CymMV-based VIGS system can be used with orchids to silence genes including PeUFGT3, PeMADS5 and PeMADS6 and induce prominent phenotypes with silencing efficiency up to 95.8% reduction. The DNA fragment size used for silencing can be as small as 78-85. bp and still reach 61.5-95.8% reduction. The effect of cDNA location as a target in VIGS varies among genes because of non-target gene influence when using the 5' terminus of the coding region of both PeMADS5 and PeMADS6. Use of VIGS to knock down a B-class MADS-box gene (PeMADS6) in orchids with different maturation status of inflorescence allowed for observing discernable knockdown phenotypes in flowers. Furthermore, silencing effects with Agro-infiltration did not differ with both leaf and inflorescence injections, but injection in the leaf saved time and produced less damage to plants. We propose an optimized approach for VIGS using CymMV as a silencing vector for floral functional genomics in Phalaenopsis orchid with Agro-infiltration: (1) DNA fragment length about 80. bp, (2) a more mature status of inflorescence and (3) leaf injection. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Wu S.-J.,Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science | Lee S.-J.,Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science | Su C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lin D.-L.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | And 2 more authors.
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The present study examined the anti-proliferative properties of aqueous (WESM), ethanolic (EESM) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCESM-5) extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and the contents of bioactive compounds salvianolic acid B (SAB), cryptotanshinone (CTS), tanshinone I (TS-I) and tanshinone IIA (TS-IIA). Results showed that WESM contained mainly SAB, whereas EESM possessed all the four bioactive compounds, but its concentrations of CTS, TS-I and TS-IIA were 2-3-fold lower than SCESM-5. SCESM-5 demonstrated the most potent inhibitory effect on 3T3-L1 cell proliferation, and induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Further studies showed that it enhanced intracellular ROS level, down-regulated CD95 (APO-1/CD95), Bcl-2 and PPAR-γ, up-regulated Bax, AMPK and p-AMPK, and caused activation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, as well as JNK and ERK activation and phosphorylation. Pretreatments with antioxidant (Vit E), caspase-3 (z-DEVD-fmk) and ERK (PD98059) inhibitors significantly suppressed the SCESM-5-induced ROS production and cell death. Caspase-3 inhibitor efficiently blocked the Bax expression, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage, while ERK inhibitor suppressed the ERK phosphorylation after SCESM-5 treatment. This study concludes that CTS, TS-I and TS-IIA of SCESM-5 may have contributed to the potent anti-proliferative activity through the MAPK and AMPK pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang S.-S.,National Taiwan University | Wang S.-S.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Wang C.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Tseng T.-H.,Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Stunted lemma palea 1 (slp1) is a rice mutant that displays dwarfism, shortened inflorescence lengths, severely degenerated lemmas/paleas, and sterility. The SLP1 locus was mapped between markers RM447 and D275 in the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 8, using the F2 progeny derived from the cross between the Slp1/slp1 mutant (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) and the variety Taichung Native 1 (TN1, O. sativa subsp. indica). The SLP1 locus was further delimited to a 46. 4-kb genomic region containing three putative genes: OsSPL16, OsMADS45, and OsMADS37. Comparisons of the sequence variations and expression levels of the three candidate genes between wild-type plants and homozygous slp1 mutants suggested that a missense mutation in the sixth amino acid of the OsSPL16 protein was likely responsible for the slp1 mutant phenotypes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Hsieh M.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsieh M.-H.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Pan Z.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Lai P.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C-and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis. © 2013 The Author.

Wang Y.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang K.-W.,Aletheia University | Chen R.-K.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Lo J.-C.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Shen Y.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2010

Ability to make large-area yield prediction before harvest is important in many aspects of agricultural decision-making. In this study, canopy reflectance band ratios (NIR/RED, NIR/GRN) of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) at booting stage, from field measurements conducted from 1999 to 2005, were correlated with the corresponding yield data to derive regression-type yield prediction models for the first and second season crop, respectively. These yield models were then validated with ground truth measurements conducted in 2007 and 2008 at eight sites, of different soil properties, climatic conditions, and various treatments in cultivars planted and N application rates, using surface reflectance retrieved from atmospherically corrected SPOT imageries. These validation tests indicated that root mean square error of predicting grain yields per unit area by the proposed models were less than 0.7Tha-1 for both cropping seasons. Since village is the basic unit for national rice yield census statistics in Taiwan, the yield models were further used to forecast average regional yields for 14 selected villages and compared with officially reported data. Results indicate that the average yield per unit area at village scale can be forecasted with a root mean square error of 1.1Tha-1 provided no damaging weather occurred during the final month before actual harvest. The methodology can be applied to other optical sensors with similar spectral bands in the visible/near-infrared and to different geographical regions provided that the relation between yield and spectral index is established. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Lin M.-Y.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2013

The mango red spider mite, Oligonychus mangiferus (Rhaman and Sapra), is a major mango pest in Taiwan. This mite damages the leaves of the mango tree and affects the quality of the fruit. This study investigates the life history of the mango red spider mite on Mangifera indica L. cv. Irwin at five constant temperatures (17, 21, 25, 29, and 33 °C), under 80 ± 5 % RH and L12:D12 photoperiod conditions. An increase in temperature significantly decreased the developmental times for each stage and the overall immature period in females and males. The lower developmental thresholds of the immature stage were 12.5 and 12.4 °C for females and males, respectively. The thermal summations for the development of the immature stage were 185.9 and 175.7 degree-days for females and males, respectively. Based on the annual field temperature, an estimated 26 generations can reproduce in a mango orchard annually. The longevity of adults of both sexes decreased as temperature increased, and adult males lived longer than females. The preoviposition periods were shorter than 1 day when the temperature exceeded 25 °C. The development period and the oviposition period were shortest at 29 °C. At this point, daily fecundity was highest, and fecundity was second highest, resulting in the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r m), 0.182 day-1. These life history traits are applied to improve the management of O. mangiferus. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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