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Chang Y.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chang Y.-C.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Shii C.-T.,National Taiwan University | Lee Y.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chung M.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2013

The karyotype and numeric changes in chromosomes among taxa of Lycoris (spider lilies) have been attributed to whole-arm rearrangements; however, the history of karyotype evolution of Lycoris is still ambiguous. In the natural habitat, one-third of Lycoris taxa are interspecific hybrids that are mainly sterile and extremely diverse in morphologies. Lycoris are geophytes with the reproductive stage initiated inside the bulbs during the storage period, which brings some inconveniences in collecting meiotic materials for studying chromosome pairing. The partial fertility of an artificial F1 interspecific hybrid between L. aurea (2n = 14) and L. radiata (2n = 22) provides an alternative option for tracing the meiotic process in F1 hybrids. The chromosome compositions of those functional gametes generated by the F1 hybrid could be recovered according to the chromosome complements of backcross progenies. We perform genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis on somatic chromosomes of 34 BC1 plants (2n = 14-22) to reveal chromosomal divergences in number and composition of those functional gametes. GISH results also indicated a high homology between the MT- and A-genomes of Lycoris, reflecting on the partial fertility and frequently homoeologous recombination at meiosis of the F1 interspecific hybrids. The diverse chromosome complements and recombinant patterns presented in these functional gametes suggested that interspecific hybridization is an important force in driving diversification among Lycoris species. We suggest that the MT-karyotype genome may be the ancestral type in Lycoris, and some other chromosomal rearrangements in addition to centromeric fission may have played roles in the karyotype evolution of Lycoris. © 2013 The Author(s).

Lee C.-F.,Agricultural Research Institute | Chang H.-Y.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Wang C.-L.,Agricultural Research Institute | Chen W.-S.,Food and Fertilizer Technology Center
Zoological Studies | Year: 2011

A review of Phyllotreta Chevrolat in Taiwan (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). Zoological Studies 50(4): 525-533. Species of the genus Phyllotreta Chevrolat in Japan and Taiwan are reviewed. Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius) is redescribed based on Taiwanese specimens; P. chotanica Duvivier is recorded for the 1st time in Taiwan; and P. downesi insularis Heikertinger is raised to species level. Lectotypes and paratypes are designated for P. downesi insularis.

Lin M.-Y.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2013

The mango red spider mite, Oligonychus mangiferus (Rhaman and Sapra), is a major mango pest in Taiwan. This mite damages the leaves of the mango tree and affects the quality of the fruit. This study investigates the life history of the mango red spider mite on Mangifera indica L. cv. Irwin at five constant temperatures (17, 21, 25, 29, and 33 °C), under 80 ± 5 % RH and L12:D12 photoperiod conditions. An increase in temperature significantly decreased the developmental times for each stage and the overall immature period in females and males. The lower developmental thresholds of the immature stage were 12.5 and 12.4 °C for females and males, respectively. The thermal summations for the development of the immature stage were 185.9 and 175.7 degree-days for females and males, respectively. Based on the annual field temperature, an estimated 26 generations can reproduce in a mango orchard annually. The longevity of adults of both sexes decreased as temperature increased, and adult males lived longer than females. The preoviposition periods were shorter than 1 day when the temperature exceeded 25 °C. The development period and the oviposition period were shortest at 29 °C. At this point, daily fecundity was highest, and fecundity was second highest, resulting in the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r m), 0.182 day-1. These life history traits are applied to improve the management of O. mangiferus. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Peng J.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Peng J.-C.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Chen T.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen T.-C.,Asia University, Taiwan | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause severe damage to crops worldwide. In this investigation, tobacco lines transgenic for individual WLm constructs containing the conserved motifs of the L RNA-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The WLm constructs included: (i) translatable WLm in a sense orientation; (ii) untranslatable WLmt with two stop codons; (iii) untranslatable WLmts with stop codons and a frame-shift; (iv) untranslatable antisense WLmA; and (v) WLmhp with an untranslatable inverted repeat of WLm containing the tospoviral S RNA 3′-terminal consensus sequence (5′-ATTGCTCT-3′) and an NcoI site as a linker to generate a double-stranded hairpin transcript. A total of 46.7-70.0% transgenic tobacco lines derived from individual constructs showed resistance to the homologous WSMoV; 35.7-100% plants of these different WSMoV-resistant lines exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against four other serologically unrelated tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus. The selected transgenic tobacco lines also exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against five additional tospoviruses from WSMoV and Iris yellow spot virus clades, but not against RNA viruses from other genera. Northern analyses indicated that the broad-spectrum resistance is mediated by RNA silencing. To validate the L conserved region resistance in vegetable crops, the constructs were also used to generate transgenic tomato lines, which also showed effective resistance against WSMoV and other tospoviruses. Thus, our approach of using the conserved motifs of tospoviral L gene as a transgene generates broad-spectrum resistance against tospoviruses at the genus level. © 2014 Peng et al.

Wang Y.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang K.-W.,Aletheia University | Chen R.-K.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Lo J.-C.,Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Shen Y.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2010

Ability to make large-area yield prediction before harvest is important in many aspects of agricultural decision-making. In this study, canopy reflectance band ratios (NIR/RED, NIR/GRN) of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) at booting stage, from field measurements conducted from 1999 to 2005, were correlated with the corresponding yield data to derive regression-type yield prediction models for the first and second season crop, respectively. These yield models were then validated with ground truth measurements conducted in 2007 and 2008 at eight sites, of different soil properties, climatic conditions, and various treatments in cultivars planted and N application rates, using surface reflectance retrieved from atmospherically corrected SPOT imageries. These validation tests indicated that root mean square error of predicting grain yields per unit area by the proposed models were less than 0.7Tha-1 for both cropping seasons. Since village is the basic unit for national rice yield census statistics in Taiwan, the yield models were further used to forecast average regional yields for 14 selected villages and compared with officially reported data. Results indicate that the average yield per unit area at village scale can be forecasted with a root mean square error of 1.1Tha-1 provided no damaging weather occurred during the final month before actual harvest. The methodology can be applied to other optical sensors with similar spectral bands in the visible/near-infrared and to different geographical regions provided that the relation between yield and spectral index is established. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

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