Taikyu High School

Wakayama-shi, Japan

Taikyu High School

Wakayama-shi, Japan
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Sato J.J.,Fukuyama University | Wolsan M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Prevosti F.J.,Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia | D'Elia G.,Austral University of Chile | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

We analyzed a concatenated (8492. bp) nuclear-mitochondrial DNA data set from 44 musteloids (including the first genetic data for Lyncodon patagonicus) with parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic and biogeographic inference and two Bayesian methods of chronological inference. Here we show that Musteloidea emerged approximately 32.4-30.9 million years ago (MYA) in Asia, shortly after the greenhouse-icehouse global climate shift at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. During their Oligocene radiation, which proceeded wholly or mostly in Asia, musteloids diversified into four primary divisions: the Mephitidae lineage separated first, succeeded by Ailuridae and the divergence of the Procyonidae and Mustelidae lineages. Mustelidae arose approximately 16.1 MYA within the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, and extensively diversified in the Miocene, mostly in Asia. The early offshoots of this radiation largely evolved into badger and marten ecological niches (Taxidiinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Guloninae, and Helictidinae), whereas the later divergences have adapted to other niches including those of weasels, polecats, minks, and otters (Mustelinae, Ictonychinae, and Lutrinae). Notably, and contrary to traditional beliefs, the morphological adaptations of badgers, martens, weasels, polecats, and minks each evolved independently more than once within Mustelidae. Ictonychinae (which is most closely related to Lutrinae) arose approximately 9.5-8.9 MYA, most likely in Asia, where it diverged into the Old World Ictonychini (Vormela, Poecilictis, Ictonyx, and Poecilogale) and New World Lyncodontini (Lyncodon and Galictis) lineages. Ictonychini presumably entered Africa during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (at the Miocene-Pliocene transition), which interposed the origins of this clade (approximately 6.5-6.0 MYA) and its African Poecilictis- Ictonyx- Poecilogale subclade (approximately 4.8-4.5 MYA). Lyncodontini originated approximately 2.9-2.6 MYA at the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in South America, slightly after the emergence of the Panamanian land bridge that provided for the Great American Biotic Interchange. As the genera Martes and Ictonyx (as currently circumscribed) are paraphyletic with respect to the genera Gulo and Poecilogale, respectively, we propose that Pekaniaand Poecilictis be treated as valid genera and that Martes pennanti and Ictonyx libyca, respectively, be assigned to these genera. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Hosoda' T.,Taikyu High School | Sato J.J.,Fukuyama University | Lin L.-K.,Tunghai University | Chen Y.-J.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

Phylogenetic relationships among species of the family Mustelidae were examined using the combined nucleotide sequences of the three mitochondrial genetic loci (cytochrome b (MT-CYB; 1140 bp), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (MTND2; 1044 bp), and displacement loop (MT-DLOOP; 540 bp)), with special emphasis on the phylogenetic history of four Taiwanese mustelid species: Martes flavigula (Boddaert, 1785), Melogale moschata (Gray, 1831), Mustela nivalis L., 1766, and Mustela sibirica Pallas, 1773. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the combined sequences of the mitochondrial genetic loci produced a topology largely congruent with that of previous studies at the species level. Analyses of intraspecific genetic variations revealed two Melogale moschata individuals from Taiwan and Vietnam that showed genetic distances comparable with interspecific variations within the mustelid lineages. Furthermore, Mustela nivalis, recently discovered in Taiwan, was not as genetically differentiated from other continental conspecific individuals as a previous morphological survey suggested. Divergence time estimations for the mustelid lineages of Taiwan and the Eurasian continent by the Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach suggested multiple colonization of Taiwan by mustelids from the continent during the Pleistocene, creating a hierarchical pattern of endemism based on the differential isolation history of the mustelid species in Taiwan.

Ishida K.,Hokkaido University | Sato J.J.,Fukuyama University | Kinoshita G.,Hokkaido University | Hosoda T.,Taikyu High School | And 3 more authors.
Acta Theriologica | Year: 2013

We examined sequence variation in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of seven species of the genus Martes (Mustelidae, Carnivora): Martes americana (American marten), Martes flavigula (yellow-throated marten), Martes foina (beech marten), Martes martes (pine marten), Martes melampus (Japanese marten), Martes pennanti (fisher) and Martes zibellina (sable), focusing on the phylogenetic history of the Hokkaido subspecies of the sable, Martes zibellinabrachyura. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene confirmed the view that the Hokkaido sable population has lower genetic diversity. In contrast, network analysis of a nuclear gene related to coat colour, melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r), revealed two different haplogroups for this population: one shared with that of Russian sables and the other specific to this population but with a close relationship with the American and Japanese martens, implying that these endemic haplotypes are composed of uncharacterised ancestral lineages of a past population. We also examined the sequence variation in a neighbouring nuclear gene, transcription factor 25 (Tcf25), located about 5 kb upstream from the Mc1r gene, and found similar trends. The sable genome leaves the impression that Hokkaido hosted ancient marten lineages, with subsequent recent migrations from the continent. The validity of a candidate Mc1r mutation for the entirely yellow coat observed on Hokkaido sables was also discussed. © 2012 Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.

Sato J.J.,Fukuyama University | Hosoda T.,Taikyu High School | Kryukov A.P.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kartavtseva I.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Suzuki H.,Hokkaido University
Mammal Study | Year: 2011

Intra-species genetic variations of the sable Martes zibellina (Carnivora, Mustelidae), originating from Russian Far East and Hokkadio, were assessed by using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (976 base pairs). Evaluation of the genetic diversity of the sables demonstrated that populations in the southern Primorsky territory in Russian Far East harbors high genetic diversity. We assumed that the high genetic variations might have been due to effects of refugia, secondary admixture of allopatrically differentiated lineages, or massive anthropogenic introductions. Molecular phylogenetic (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference approaches) and network (median joining method) analyses clarified that sables in Hokkaido was monophyletic. Bayesian-relaxed molecular dating approach estimated the date for migration of sables into Hokkaido to lie between 0.100.27 Myr BP. Considering the geological evidence, the Late Pleistocene was presumed to be the plausible epoch for the establishment of the sables in Hokkaido. Lower genetic diversity of the sables in Hokkaido observed in this study was probably caused by the foundation effects or anthropogenic hunting pressures. Mammalian faunal construction in Hokkaido was also discussed. © the Mammalogical Society of Japan.

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