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Jen Y.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Yuan C.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Lin Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Lee C.-G.,Taijen University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association | Year: 2011

This study investigated the seasonal variation and spatial distribution of gaseous and particulate mercury at a unique mercury-contaminated remediation site located at the near-coastal region of Tainan City, Taiwan. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), particulate mercury (PTM), and dustfall mercury (DFM) were measured at six nearby sites from November 2009 to September 2010. A newly issued Method for Sampling and Analyzing Mercury in Air (National Institute of Environmental Analysis [NIEA] Method A304.10C) translated from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method IO-5, was applied for the measurement of atmospheric mercury in this particular study. One-year field measurements showed that the seasonal averaged concentrations of GEM and PTM were in the range of 5.56-12.60 and 0.06-0.22 ng/m3, respectively, whereas the seasonal averaged deposition fluxes of DFM were in the range of 27.0-56.8 g/km2-month. The maximum concentrations of GEM and PTM were 38.95 and 0.58 ng/m3, respectively. The atmospheric mercury apportioned as 97.42-99.87% GEM and 0.13-2.58% PTM. As a whole, the concentrations of mercury species were higher in the springtime and summertime than those in the wintertime and fall. The southern winds generally brought higher mercury concentrations, whereas the northern winds brought relatively lower mercury concentrations, to the nearby fishing villages. This study revealed that the mercury-contaminated remediation site, an abandoned chlor-alkali manufacturing plant, was the major mercury emission source that caused severe atmospheric mercury contamination over the investigation region. The hot spot of mercury emissions was allocated at the southern tip of the abandoned chlor-alkali manufacturing plant. On-site continuous monitoring of GEM at the mercury-contaminated remediation site observed that GEM concentrations during the open excavation period were 2-3 times higher than those during the nonexcavation period. Implications: A manual and an auto-monitoring technique were successfully applied to sample gaseous and particulate mercury at a unique mercury-contaminated remediation site and further measured with a cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). The mercury-contaminated remediation site was announced as a supersite of mercury contamination by the Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) of Tainan City in 2003, causing significant contamination of atmospheric mercury over the investigation region. Both ambient temperature and prevailing wind direction played critical roles on the tempospatial variation and partition of gaseous and particulate mercury in the ambient atmosphere. © 2011 Copyright 2011 Air & Waste Management Association.


PubMed | Sun Yat Sen University, National University of Kaohsiung and Taijen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) | Year: 2017

This study investigated the seasonal variation and spatial distribution of gaseous and particulate mercury at a unique mercury-contaminated remediation site located at the near-coastal region of Tainan City, Taiwan. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), particulate mercury (PTM), and dustfall mercury (DFM) were measured at six nearby sites from November 2009 to September 2010. A newly issued Method for Sampling and Analyzing Mercury in Air (National Institute of Environmental Analysis [NIEA] Method A304.10C) translated from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method IO-5, was applied for the measurement of atmospheric mercury in this particular study. One-year field measurements showed that the seasonal averaged concentrations of GEM and PTM were in the range of 5.56-12.60 and 0.06-0.22 ng/m


Horng C.-T.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | Horng C.-T.,Taijen University | Yaun I.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | Haung Y.-T.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

Purpose: To evaluate the prognosis of patients with stubborn central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) after oral propranolol. Methods: Two patients having CSCR with moderate to severe vision loss were treated at other hospitals but failed. They were introduced to our department. All the patients underwent the complete evaluation at the baseline and follow-up visits. This ocular examination included the bare and best-corrected visual acuity, fundus biomicroscopy and OCT in each visit(every 2 weeks).The medication of oral propranolol (20 mg qid per day) in our cases were used. Results: The follow-up time ranged between 3 and 6 months. Improvement of vision was observed, and they all had better spectacle-free vision within 2 months. The serous retinal detachment improved in all eyes and no ocular and systemic complications were noted. The detailed findings could be easily monitored by series of OCT. Conclusion: Many literatures had mentioned that the risk factors associated with CSCR including personality, psychological stress, or excessive steroid use. It is difficult to predict the exact reasons and will be bothered by the possibility of recurrence in this disease developed into chronic stage. How to select the correct drugs for patients became very important for clinicians. If failed, it may result in impaired permanent visual function. The oral propranolol (20 mg qid per day) was used to treat the patients with CSCR within 1.5 months in our study. No recurrent CSCR was noted after long time follow-op. Besides, the oral inderal showed safety concerns. The mechanisms of the beta-blockers were to reduce the adrenergic activity in the body and eyes. Propranolol had known, moreover, other advantage about the lowering the heart rate in patients with emotional stress which may be the impact factor of CSCR. Thus, we suggested that if the patients were vigorous and enthusiastic, the use of oral propranolol may be the first line medication to treat CSCR in clinics.


Horng C.-T.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | Horng C.-T.,Taijen University | Chou H.-L.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | Tsai K.-L.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

To discover the incidence of ocular surface diseases in the RCC in one region hospital in southern Taiwan. Methods: A prospective study was performed from January 2014 to May 2014. We recorded the causes of admission, eyelid position, abnormal findings of the conjunctiva and cornea. Besides, we also collected data about age, sex, sedation score, the intubation or not, the ventilator setting, date of admission, endotracheal tube or tracheostomy used et al. Results: Total 30 patients were examined in RCC. The mean age of the patients was 60.5 years (range 32-82). 18 patients were male and 12 were female. 24 patients had been sedated or non-sedated with various ventilators. 6 patients were in T-piece trial. 22 patients had tube intubation and 8 patients had received tracheostomy. Mean stay time was 20.5 days. The percent of ocular surface diseases were 33.3% (10/30), and lagophthalmos was observed about 33.3% due to sedation. 23.3% (7/30) patients had conjunctival problems and 26.6% (8/30) had keratopathy. We found that 80% (8/10) patients with lagophthalmos had eye disorders. The endotracheal tube intubation group had a relatively higher incidence of ocular surface diseases (7/22;32%). If the sedation score lower than 8, 26 % patients may have eye diseases. Conclusion: The incidence of ocular surface diseases is closely related to heavy sedation or muscle relaxants. The assessment of eyelid position in relation to the ocular surface disease is the most important observation required in RCC. How to set up the routine protocol for eye care for the staff in ICU becomes valuable and serious today. We must keep in mind that prevention is always better than cure.


Horng C.-T.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | Horng C.-T.,Taijen University | Lee Y.-L.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | Wu H.-C.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

Purpose: To report a 24 young female with hypernatremia and cataract formation with high high myopic shift in the left eye which happened suddenly within one month. Methods: Case report. Results: The young female complained about blurred vision for one month in this year. After series of studies, severe nuclear sclerosis (Grade 4) of lens of left eye was found under the slit lamp examination. The myopic shift increased about 10 D (from zero to - 10D) within one month suddenly. Her bare visual acuity had decreased to 6/60. Thus, we had arranged the phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens insertion at once. At the beginning of cataract surgery, we withdraw little anterior aqueous humor fluid for analysis. Sodium in the aqueous revealed 103 mmol/kg H2O which is apparently lower than the normal range. At the same time, we checked the serum sodium and hypernatremia (Na+ =151 mEq/L) was found. The mean blood pressure was about 150/95 mmHg and the patient had severe thirsty sensation. Because of the diagnosis of essential hypertension, she was suggested to receive further medical treatment. Conclusion: The causal relationship between high salt intake and high blood in established now. Besides, hypernatremia may also combine with the decreased sodium level in anterior aqueous humor. The sodium shifted into the lens would induce the osmotic swelling with lens fiber damage. The hyper-osmotic pressure may accelerate the formation of cataract. Because sodium in food was often derived from soy sauce, monosodium glutamate and miso soup in Taiwan, to inform and educate the public become very important. To our knowledge, the very young age and the rapid change of refractive error within one month in our case had never been reported in the world.


Horng C.-T.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | Horng C.-T.,Taijen University | Lin Y.-T.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | Huang S.-L.,Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

To evaluate the outcome of patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) after deep sub-tenon bevacizumab injection by the noninvasive evaluation by optic coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Three patients having CSCR with moderate to severe vision loss were treated with at least two time of sub-tenon bevacizumab injection (0.3 ml). All the patients underwent the complete examinations at the baseline and follow-up visits. This ocular evaluation included the bare and best-corrected visual acuity (by Snellen chart), fundus biomicroscopy and OCT in each visit. Results: The follow-up point ranged between 2 and 6 months. Improvement of vision was observed, and they all had better visual acuity. The serous retinal detachment improved in all eyes and no complications were noted. The detailed findings could be easily explained and monitored by OCT. Conclusion: Deeper sub-tenon bevacizumab injection was safer and also effective in treatment of CSCR. It can induce regression of edema from serous detachment, decrease the choroidal hyper-permeability and enhance the absorption of subretinal fluid. Besides, the use of series of OCT may help us more easily to detect the posterior pole of fundus and the prognosis after bevacizumab injection. The ophthalmologists also explain to the patients and their families by detailed and simply known tomographic pictures.

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