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Kalashnik A.M.,Taifun Research and Production Association | Kalashnik M.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Izvestiya - Atmospheric and Ocean Physics | Year: 2011

A description of the dynamic stage of the intensification of a tropical cyclone (TC) amounts to describing an interaction between radial (in the vertical plane) and tangential (rotational) circulation fields. In an axisymmetric TC, the structure of radial circulation is given by a streamfunction; the evolution of tangential velocity is expressed by the angular-momentum transfer equation. In this paper, analytical solutions to the equation of transfer of angular momentum are derived for several model streamfunction distributions imitating the TC radial circulation. The features of TC intensification are described on the basis of these solutions. In particular, in the TC-specific steady radial circulation, cyclonic rotation in the axial zone of the vortex encompasses the entire troposphere with time. The low-level TC intensification is accompanied by an exponential growth of maximum tangential velocity and by a fall in the radius of the maximum wind (vortex contraction). Numerical estimates are obtained which show that the Coriolis force plays a crucial role in TC cyclonic rotation. It is shown that a vortex with hurricane velocity forms from a state of rest in two days owing to a steady mass flux to the center and the deflecting effect of the Coriolis force. A rapid superexponential growth of maximum vortex velocity is possible with a nonstationary (increasing) mass inflow. The influence of friction is also studied using a simple phenomenological model. It is found that for TC intensification in the friction model it is necessary for the radial flow velocity at the lower level to be higher than a particular threshold (critical) value. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Chkhetiani O.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kalashnik M.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Ingel' L.K.,Taifun Research and Production Association
Izvestiya - Atmospheric and Ocean Physics | Year: 2013

The problem of stationary convective flows over a nonuniformly heated wavy surface is studied in the context of a simplified analytical model. It is shown that the horizontally periodic heating of such a surface can lead to a "thermal wind" effect, i. e., the generation of a uniform horizontal flow far from the surface. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Ingel' L.K.,Taifun Research and Production Association
Izvestiya - Atmospheric and Ocean Physics | Year: 2010

In a hydrostatically stable binary mixture (e. g., stably stratified and horizontally density-homogeneous salt seawater), horizontal density gradients can arise due to the difference between the diffusivities of two substances. The horizontal gradients of hydrostatic pressure that are formed in this case lead to the generation of density flows which appear to have been previously ignored. Examples of such flows arising in a fluid with initially horizontally uniform density and pressure distributions are analyzed. Density flows can also arise due to different boundary conditions for two substances. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.


Kalashnik M.V.,Taifun Research and Production Association | Visheratin K.N.,Taifun Research and Production Association
Izvestiya - Atmospheric and Ocean Physics | Year: 2010

Intense atmospheric vortices are characterized by a regime of cyclostrophic balance, i.e., the balance between the pressure gradient and centrifugal force. To describe motions in the core of an axisymmetrical vortex, a class of exact solutions to the equations of gas dynamics with a linear dependence on radius is derived for the velocity components and with a quadratic dependence for temperature. It is shown that small deviations from the balance state give rise to oscillations of the hydrothermodynamic fields in the vortex core with a frequency proportional to the angular velocity of the rotation of the core. For fairly large initial deviations, oscillations are clearly anharmonic and, under the conditions of the prevailing centrifugal force, result in a significant temperature decrease on the vortex axis. The application of this class of solutions to describing the Ranque vortex effect (the intense cooling of gas during rapid rotations) and the acoustic radiation from tornadoes is discussed. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.


Stepina I.A.,Taifun Research and Production Association | Popov V.E.,Taifun Research and Production Association
Radiochemistry | Year: 2013

The 137Cs sorption and desorption equilibrium between illite and a solution containing 0.5 mM K+ and 1 to 100 mM Ca2+, determined using a kinetic method with direct measurement of the radioactivity in the sorbent solid phase, was attained within 20-25 days. The kinetic curves of the 137Cs sorption onto/desorption from illite, normalized on the maximal sorbed radioactivity, almost coincided at different Ca2+ concentrations. An increase in the 137Cs distribution coefficient (K d) with a decrease in the Ca2+ concentration did not exceed 60% and was due exclusively to the influence of the solution ionic strength. With an increase in the Ca2+ concentration from 1 to 100 mM, the fraction of 137Cs extracted with 1 M CH3COONH 4 (αEx) decreased from 24.1 to 14.8%. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Stepina I.A.,Taifun Research and Production Association | Maslova K.M.,Taifun Research and Production Association | Popov V.E.,Taifun Research and Production Association
Radiochemistry | Year: 2013

The radiocesium interception potentials [RIP(K)] in powders of building materials, mmol kg-1, determined by the Wauters method, are as follows: brick 10-15, limestone 12, concrete 70-190, granite 40-200, and asphalt 140-280. The RIP(N) values, mmol kg-1, are lower than the respective RIP(K) values: limestone 2, brick 2-5, granite 3-11, asphalt 21-30, and concrete 45-195. For concrete and brick, the selectivity coefficients K c(K/N) on 137Cs-selective sorption sites vary from 1.5 to 2.8, and for asphalt, limestone, and granite they reach 7-18, which suggests the presence of illite and mica particles affecting the 137Cs sorption in these materials. The values of K d of 137Cs, calculated from the RIP(K) values and from the predicted concentrations of K+ in the pore solution of intact building materials, dm3 kg -1, are as follows: brick, limestone, and granite, 5-26; asphalt, 190-390; concrete, 600-1700. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Visheratin K.N.,Taifun Research and Production Association
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy | Year: 2012

Temporal variability of the relationship between the phases of quasi-decadal oscillations (QDOs) of total ozone (TO), measured at the Arosa station, and the Ri international sunspot number have been analyzed for the period of 1932-2009. Before the 1970s, the maximum phase of ozone QDOs lagged behind solar activity variations by about 2.5-2.8 years and later outstripped by about 1.5 years. We assumed that the TO QDOs in midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere were close to being in resonance with solar activity oscillations in the period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s and assessed the characteristic delay period of TO QDOs. The global distribution of phases and amplitudes of TO QDOs have been studied for the period from 1979 to 2008 based on satellite data. The maximum phase of TO QDOs first onsets in northern middle and high latitudes and coincides with the end of the growth phase of the 11-year solar cycle. In the tropics, the maximum oscillation phase lags behind by 0.5-1 year. The maximum phase lag near 40-50° S is about two years. The latitudinal variations of the phase of TO QDOs have been approximated. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Vakulovsky S.M.,Taifun Research and Production Association
Atomic Energy | Year: 2013

Information on the sources of radioactive contamination of the Barents Sea in 1961-2000 is presented and the sources are ranked. It is shown that the main source was cross-border transport by ocean currents of radioactive wastes, dumped into the Irish Sea and the English Channel by radiochemical plants in Great Britain and France. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Yaroshevich M.I.,Taifun Research and Production Association
Izvestiya - Atmospheric and Ocean Physics | Year: 2013

Spatial distributions of the beginnings and most intense stages of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean are compared with gravity anomalies (GAs) in the zone of action of cyclones. The possible influence of GAs on hurricanes that reached land in the Gulf of Mexico region and in the southeastern part of China is considered. The relation of the formal feedback between some characteristics of the intensity of TCs and spatially averaged GAs is shown. It is suggested that GAs can be regarded as a factor affecting the life cycle of a TC to a certain extent. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Ingel L.K.,Taifun Research and Production Association
Technical Physics | Year: 2010

The response of a stratified two-component fluid (for example, salt water) to the action of a localized vertical force is considered. If the transport coefficients of two substances (heat and salt) differ considerably, specific disturbances of the buoyancy that influence the hydrodynamic drag of the medium may arise. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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