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Jiang S.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang W.,Shandong Agricultural University | Gao J.,Taian Central Hospital Stomatology | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Zearalenone (ZEA), commonly present in corn and its derived products for animals, has caused significant economical impact on swine reproduction in China. The present study therefore attempted to reveal the adverse effects of ZEA (1.3 mg/kg diet) exposure from a viewpoint of damages focusing on the liver and kidney of female piglets. The efficacy of dietary montmorillonite clay in preventing ZEA-induced adverse effects was also determined. Treatments were 1) control; 2) control + 2.5 g/kg clay; 3) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA; 4) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA + 1.25 g/kg clay; 5) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA + 2.5 g/kg clay; 6) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA + 5.0 g/kg clay; 7) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA + 10 g/kg clay. Results showed that pigs fed ZEA-contaminated diet reduced (P < 0.05) platelets, haemoglobin, globulin, triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) in serum, and increased (P < 0.05) all enzymes activities, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. Degeneration of the liver and kidney tissues was also found in female piglets fed 1.3 mg/kg ZEA-contaminated diet. Dietary addition of clay showed a positive protection effect on ZEA feeding, and the linear or quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on neutralizing detrimental effects of clay in ZEA feeding were observed. It suggested that feeding ZEA at 1.3 mg/kg diet for 24-d may result in a deleterious effect in female piglets, and clay addition at 5 or 10 g/kg diet can effectively protect against the detrimental effects of the ZEA feeding. These results may have implications for human and animals consuming ZEA-contaminated food or feed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Jiang S.Z.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang Z.B.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang W.R.,Shandong Agricultural University | Gao J.,Taian Central Hospital Stomatology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Zearalenone (ZEA), an estrogenic mycotoxin, is produced mainly by Fusarium fungi. Previous studies indicated that acute ZEA exposure induced oxidative stress and damage in multiple organs. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the adverse effects of dietary ZEA (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg of diet) on oxidative stress and organ damage in postweaning gilts. A total of 20 gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) weaned at d 21 with an average BW of 10.36 ± 1.21 kg was used in the study. Gilts were housed in a temperature-controlled room, divided into 4 treatments, and fed a basal diet only (control) or basal diet supplemented with purified ZEA at a dietary concentration of 1 (ZEA1), 2 (ZEA2), or 3 (ZEA3) mg/kg of diet for 18 d ad libitum. The actual ZEA contents (analyzed) were 0, 1.1 ± 0.02, 2.0 ± 0.01, and 3.2 ± 0.02 mg/kg for control, ZEA1, ZEA2, and ZEA3, respectively. Gilts fed different amounts of dietary ZEA grew similarly with no difference (P > 0.05) in feed intake. Vulva size increased linearly over the 18 d of feeding in gilts fed diets containing 1.1 mg of ZEA/kg or greater (P < 0.001). Relative weight of genital organs, liver, and kidney increased linearly (P < 0.05) in a ZEA-dose-dependent manner. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamate transferase, urea, and creatinine (P < 0.05), and malondialdehyde concentrations in both serum and liver (P < 0.001) were also increased linearly in a ZEA-dose-dependent manner. However, spleen relative weight (P = 0.002) and activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (in both serum and liver (P < 0.05) were decreased linearly as dietary ZEA increased. Results showed that besides genital organs, the liver, kidney, and spleen may also be target tissues in young gilts fed diets containing 1.1 to 3.2 mg of ZEA/kg for 18 d. Increased key liver enzymes in the serum suggest progressive liver damage caused by feeding ZEA, and an increase in oxidative stress in gilts is another potential impact of ZEA toxicity in pigs. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

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