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Liu Z.,Taian Academy Of Agricultural Science | Wang J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Bi J.,Taian Academy Of Agricultural Science | Bi Y.,Taian Academy Of Agricultural Science | And 3 more authors.
Separation Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract three isoflavonoids including irigenin, irisfloretin and dichtomitin from Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. The parameters including pressure, temperature, sample particle size, and flow rate of CO 2 were optimized with an orthogonal test. Under the optimized conditions of 15 MPa, 55°C, a sample particle size of 20-40 mesh and CO 2 flow rate of 40 L h -1. The process was then scaled up by 10 times using a preparative SFE system. The yield of the crude extract from SFE was 4.1%, which contained irigenin, irisfloretin, and dichtomitin 0.71%, 0.49%, and 0.05%, respectively. To compare the extraction methods, Soxhlet Extraction (SE) was performed. The results indicated that SFE was better than SE. Irigenin, irisfloretin, and dichtomitin in the SFE extract were then separated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:4:3:3, v/v). From 5.0 g of dry crude extract, 27.8 mg irigenin, 16.4 mg irisfloretin, and 2.1 mg dichtomitin were obtained at purities of 97.1%, 96.4%, and 98.0%, respectively, as determined by HPLC-PDA. These results well indicate that SFE and HSCCC are very powerful techniques for the extraction and purification of irigenin, irisfloretin, and dichtomitin from B. chinensis. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kong F.-M.,Shandong Agricultural University | Guo Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Guo Y.,Taian Academy Of Agricultural Science | Liang X.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Aims: Potassium (K) is one of the most important mineral nutrients limiting plant growth in agricultural systems. This study investigated the effects of low-K treatments and detected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for K efficiency traits at the seedling and adult stages of wheat. Methods: Eleven seedling traits under a hydroponic culture trial with five K treatments and nine adult traits in a pot trial and a field trial with three K treatments were investigated using a set of wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Results: Values of most of the seedling and adult traits decreased with decreasing K supply, but the K-use efficiency and ratio of dry weight between seedling roots and shoots (RSDW) increased. A total of 87 QTLs for seedling traits in the hydroponic culture trial and 51 and 29 QTLs for adult traits in the pot and field trials, respectively, were detected. We also identified 15 relatively high-frequency QTLs (RHF-QTLs) which can be detected in over half of the treatments and 21 QTL clusters which is defined as the co-location of QTLs for more than two traits. Conclusions: K efficiency traits and the related QTLs of wheat were greatly affected by K treatments. Several relatively stable QTLs and important QTL clusters may be potential targets for marker-assisted selection for wheat nutrient efficiency. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Guo Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Guo Y.,Taian Academy Of Agricultural Science | Sun J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhang G.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in the formation of the amino acid glutamine during N assimilation. The characterization of GS genes and the development of functional markers are important for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding programs. In the present study, the full-length genomic DNA (gDNA) sequence of TaGS1a was obtained from 60 wheat varieties. TaGS1a comprises 3415. bp and has eleven exons and ten introns. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two insertions and deletions of DNA segments (InDels) were detected in introns, resulting two haplotypes: Hap 1 and Hap 2. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was developed to distinguish the two haplotypes. The TaGS1a-CAPS marker was located on chromosome 6D using Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomic lines, and mapped at 2.5 cM from the SSR marker barc1121b in a RIL population. The completely corresponding results between quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and association analysis suggested that the TaGS1a gene had functions for grain size traits, including thousand grain weight (TGW), grain width (GW), grain height (GH), GL/GW ratio (GLW), factor form density (FFD), grain area (GA) and grain volume (GV) during maturity stage, and for the ratio of root/shoot for dry weight and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium contents (RSDW, RSNC, RSPC and RSKC) during seedling stage. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sun Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Liu Z.,Taian Academy Of Agricultural Science | Wang J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang S.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2013

In this study, an aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the four acetophenones, namely 4-hydroxyacetophenone (1), 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (2), baishouwubenzophenone (3) and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (4) from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum bungei was developed. Three kinds of aqueous l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anion and alkyl chain were investigated. The results indicated that ionic liquids (ILs) showed remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of acetophenones. In addition, the ILUAE, including several ultrasonic parameters, such as the ILs concentration, solvent to solid ratio, power, particle size, temperature, and extraction time have been optimized. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.6 M [C4MIM]BF 4, solvent to solid ratio of 35:1, power of 175 W, particle size of 60-80 mesh, temperature of 25 °C and time of 50 min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of four acetophenones 286.15, 21.65, 632.58 and 205.38 μg/g, respectively. The proposed approach has been evaluated by comparison with the conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE) and regular UAE. The results indicated that ILUAE is an alternative method for extracting acetophenones from C. bungei. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Gong X.-P.,Shandong Agricultural University | Liang X.,Caoxian Bureau of Agriculture | Wu C.-H.,Shandong Agricultural University | Guo Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2016

A nutrient solution culture experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on biomass and the mineral nutrient efficiency of macroelements phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium (P, K, Ca and Mg) and microelements iron, manganese, copper and zinc (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in wheat at the seedling stage using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was also performed for all 60 traits. The results showed that 0.1 μmol/L Se can significantly affect the phenotypic traits relation to biomass and nutrient efficiency and the corresponding QTLs. A total of 260 QTLs were located on 19 chromosomes, and 96.54% of these QTLs were only detected in one treatment. A total of 23 important QTL clusters and 31 cooperative uptake and utilization (CUU) loci that colocalized with QTLs for nutrient uptake and/or utilization of at least two elements were also identified. These CUU loci involved 190 out of the 248 QTLs (76.66%) for nutrient efficiency traits, indicating that CUU-QTLs were common for macroelements (P, K, Ca and Mg) and microelements (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn). Additionally, these loci may be hot spots for genetic control of mineral nutrient efficiency traits. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis. Source

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