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West B.J.,Tahitian Noni International | Deng S.,Tahitian Noni International
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Morinda citrifolia L., commonly known as noni, is a growing global commodity. A s such, there is a need for rapid and inexpensive identity tests of noni fruit and leaf products. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods were developed for the identification of deacetylasperulosidic acid in noni fruit and leaf products. TLC methods were also developed for the identification of scopoletin in noni fruit products and rutin in noni leaf products. TLC results were supported by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses. The concentrations of marker compounds detected by HPLC indicate that these TLC methods have good sensitivity and utility in the identification of noni fruit and leaf ingredients from a range of global sources, as well as noni based commercial products. These methods do not require expensive instrumentation or specialized laboratories, and are readily transferable to laboratories operating under a variety of circumstances. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2010.


Deng S.,Tahitian Noni International | West B.J.,Tahitian Noni International | Jensen C.J.,Tahitian Noni International
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) have been used as a medicinal food for centuries in a wide range of tropical regions, and are increasingly attracting more attention worldwide. Due to the increase of commercial noni fruit products in the global market, an extensive phytochemical comparison of noni fruits and their juice products seems imperative to understand their internal quality. To this end, we developed an HPLC method, established phytochemical fingerprints, and quantitatively compared the characteristic components in 7 noni fruits and 13 commercial fruit juices originating from the Caribbean, Central America, the Central and South Pacific, and Asia. The results showed that scopoletin, rutin, quercetin, and 5,15-dimethylmorindol were detected in all the samples, although at varying concentrations. Together, these components could be used as a reference for identification and authentication of raw noni fruits and their commercial products. Meanwhile, the variation in phytochemical content in noni fruits and juices may be attributed to the diversity of geographical environments (soil, sunlight, temperature, precipitation, etc.) and post-growth factors (harvesting, storage, transportation, manufacturing processes, formulation, etc.). Further, the variation may also suggest different toxicological and pharmacological profiles. As such, scientific data of efficacy and safety conducted on one noni fruit or juice may not be applicable to all others, including those from the same origins. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


West B.J.,Tahitian Noni International | Deng S.,Tahitian Noni International | Jensen C.J.,Tahitian Noni International | Palu A.K.,Tahitian Noni International | Berrio L.F.,Tahitian Noni International
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The antioxidant activity, potential toxicity, and iridoid content of processed Cornelian cherry products were assessed. Cornus officinalis L. juice and Cornus mas L. fruit puree possessed antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Both products were non-genotoxic in reverse mutation tests in Salmonella typhimurium. Both C. officinalis juice and C. mas puree were non-toxic in acute oral toxicity tests, with respective LD 50 values >5100mgkg -1 body weight (b.w.) and >5200mgkg -1 b.w. The major iridoid identified in C. mas puree was loganic acid, while the major iridoid in C. officinalis juice was found to be morroniside. The presence of iridoids in C. mas is reported for the first time. © 2012 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Deng S.,Tahitian Noni International | West B.J.,Tahitian Noni International | Palu '.K.,Tahitian Noni International | Jensen C.J.,Tahitian Noni International
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2011

Introduction - Noni is a medicinal plant with a long history of use as a folk remedy in many tropical areas, and is attracting more attention worldwide. A comprehensive study on the major phytochemicals in different plant parts (fruit, leaf, seed, root and flower) and sources is of great value for fully understanding their diverse medicinal benefits. Objective - To quantitatively determine the major iridoid components in different parts of noni plants, and compare iridoids in noni fruits collected from different tropical areas worldwide. Methodology - The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C 18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile at 235 nm. The selective HPLC method was validated for precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and accuracy. Results - Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) was found to be the major iridoid in noni fruit. In order of predominance, DAA concentrations in different parts of the noni plant were dried noni fruit > fruit juice > seed > flower > leaf > root. The order of predominance for asperulosidic acid (AA) concentration was dried noni fruit > leaf > flower > root > fruit juice > seed. DAA and AA contents of methanolic extracts of noni fruits collected from different tropical regions were 13.8-42.9 and 0.7-8.9 mg/g, respectively, with French Polynesia containing the highest total iridoids and the Dominican Republic containing the lowest. Conclusion - Iridoids DAA and AA are found to be present in leaf, root, seed and flower of noni plants, and were identified as the major components in noni fruit. Given the great variation of iridoid contents in noni fruit grown in different tropical areas worldwide, geographical factors appear to have significant effects on fruit composition. The iridoids in noni fruit were stable at the temperatures used during pasteurisation and, therefore, may be useful marker compounds for identity and quality testing of commercial noni products. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


West B.J.,Tahitian Noni International | Jarakae Jensen C.,Tahitian Noni International | PaIu A.K.,Tahitian Noni International | Deng S.,Tahitian Noni International
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The aim of the current study was to evaluate Morinda citrifolia (noni) seed extract, a food ingredient, for potential toxicity and antioxidant activity. Nitrates, nitrites, phytic acid, oxalic acid, as well as aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were not detected in the extract. The extract was also non-cytoxic (LC 50> 1 mg/mL) in the 24 and 40 h brine shrimp toxicity test. There were no symptoms of toxicity in a subacute (28 day) oral toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats. Noni seed extract did not display any genotoxic potential in a primary DNA damage test in E. coli PQ37. The extract did exhibit significant antioxidant activity in the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) tests. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2011.


Deng S.,Tahitian Noni International | West B.J.,Tahitian Noni International | Jensen C.J.,Tahitian Noni International
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Noni leaves have been used for a variety of health benefits for thousands of years. Noni leaf tea, a commercial product made by a roasting process, is attracting more attention due to its potential health benefits. Flavonoids appear to be some of the predominant constituents in noni leaves. As flavonoids exist mostly in the forms of glycosides or polymers, degradation to corresponding metabolites is usually needed for bio-absorption. This study investigates the effects of thermal treatment (non-aqueous roasting) on flavonoids in noni leaves. Rutin and kaempferol glycoside contents decreased dramatically as roasting time and/or temperature increased, while quercetin and kaempferol aglycones were produced. A quantitative comparison demonstrated that quercetin and kaempferol concentrations were 3.74 and 6.28 times greater in noni leaf tea than in raw noni leaves, respectively. These findings indicate that the roasting process for the noni leaf tea could induce the degradation of flavonol glycosides, and produce their aglycone metabolites, which in turn, may lead to more beneficial bioactivities and bioavailability. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2011.


Yancey J.W.S.,University of Arkansas | Apple J.K.,University of Arkansas | Kegley E.B.,University of Arkansas | Godbee R.G.,Tahitian Noni International
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2013

The pulp of Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a Tahitian plant known to reduce stress and improve immunity in laboratory rats, was fed to growing cattle. Thirty crossbred beef calves (262 kg) were limit fed diets that were top-dressed with 0, 0.09, or 0.18% Noni pulp (DM basis) for 28 d. Every 4 d, cattle were weighed, bled, and assessed for subjective and objective excitability measures. Average daily gain increased linearly (P = 0.03) as the percentage of Noni increased in the diet. Noni-supplemented cattle gained more efficiently, as the G:F increased linearly (P = 0.04) with increasing Noni addition. Additionally, Noni-fed cattle had decreasing concentration of white blood cells with increased Noni supplementation (linear; P = 0.001). However, control cattle had similar serum cortisol concentrations to those fed Noni pulp (P = 0.16), and neither exit velocity nor subjective pen and chute excitability scores were affected (P = 0.79) by the addition of Noni to the diet. Therefore, Noni has the potential to improve growth and health in weaned, growing cattle, but the mechanism of action of Noni in cattle is not known. © 2013 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.


PubMed | Tahitian Noni International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Phytochemical analysis : PCA | Year: 2011

Noni is a medicinal plant with a long history of use as a folk remedy in many tropical areas, and is attracting more attention worldwide. A comprehensive study on the major phytochemicals in different plant parts (fruit, leaf, seed, root and flower) and sources is of great value for fully understanding their diverse medicinal benefits.To quantitatively determine the major iridoid components in different parts of noni plants, and compare iridoids in noni fruits collected from different tropical areas worldwide.The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C(18) column with gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile at 235 nm. The selective HPLC method was validated for precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and accuracy.Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) was found to be the major iridoid in noni fruit. In order of predominance, DAA concentrations in different parts of the noni plant were dried noni fruit > fruit juice > seed > flower > leaf > root. The order of predominance for asperulosidic acid (AA) concentration was dried noni fruit > leaf > flower > root > fruit juice > seed. DAA and AA contents of methanolic extracts of noni fruits collected from different tropical regions were 13.8-42.9 and 0.7-8.9 mg/g, respectively, with French Polynesia containing the highest total iridoids and the Dominican Republic containing the lowest.Iridoids DAA and AA are found to be present in leaf, root, seed and flower of noni plants, and were identified as the major components in noni fruit. Given the great variation of iridoid contents in noni fruit grown in different tropical areas worldwide, geographical factors appear to have significant effects on fruit composition. The iridoids in noni fruit were stable at the temperatures used during pasteurisation and, therefore, may be useful marker compounds for identity and quality testing of commercial noni products.


PubMed | Tahitian Noni International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

The leaves of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) have been utilized in a variety of commercial products marketed for their health benefits. This paper reports on a rapid and selective HPLC method for simultaneous characterization and quantitation of four flavonols in an ethanolic extract of noni leaves by using dual detectors of UV (365nm) and ESI-MS (negative mode). The limits of detection and quantitation were between 0.012 and 0.165g/mL. The intra- and inter-assay precisions, in terms of percent relative standard deviation, are less than 4.38% and 3.50%, respectively. The accuracy, in terms of recovery percentage, ranged from 96.66% to 100.03%. Good linearity (correlation coefficient >0.999) for each calibration curve of standards was achieved in the range investigated. The contents of four flavonoids in the noni leaves varied from 1.16 to 371.6mg/100g dry weight.


PubMed | Tahitian Noni International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Phytotherapy research : PTR | Year: 2010

Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) commonly known as noni, has been used in Polynesia by traditional healers for the treatment of cuts, bruises and wounds. Our objective was to investigate the wound-healing mechanisms of the noni leaf. The investigations of its wound-healing mechanisms were carried out using fresh noni leaf juice (NLJ), noni leaf ethanol extract (NLEE) and its methanol (MFEE) and hexane (HFEE) fractions on the PDGF and A(2A) receptors in vitro and topically in mice. Fresh noni leaf juice showed significant affinity to PDGF receptors, and displayed 166% binding inhibition of the ligand binding to its receptors, while at the same concentration, it only had 7% inhibition of the ligand binding to the A(2A) receptors. NLEE, HFEE and MFEE showed significant affinity to A(2A) receptors, concentration dependently, with IC(50) values of 34.1, 42.9 and 86.7 g/mL, respectively. However, MFEE significantly increased wound closure and reduced the half closure time in mice with a CT(50) of 5.4 0.2 days compared with control (p < 0.05). These results suggest that noni leaf significantly accelerated wound healing in mice via its ligand binding to the PDGF and A(2A) receptors as its probable mechanisms of wound-healing and also support its traditional usage for wound-healing in Polynesia.

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