AlQdah K.,Tafila Technical University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2010
Rising concern about energy resource availability and energy prices in Jordan, cost of energy has become an issue that cannot be ignored in Jordan's industrial sector. In this study, energy auditing in a meat production factory related to poultry company was carried out. Based on the collected data and the conservation laws of energy, the performance of steam boilers, domestic hot water boilers, compressors, refrigeration systems, chillers, pumps, daily consumption of diesel and water were reviewed. The percentage of energy consumed by the refrigeration units, with respect to the total energy consumed, has been estimated. The results demonstrated a normal operation with thermal efficiency of 80.66% for the steam boiler, ability to save 18818.99 JD by installing economizer with payback period of 0.637 year and a 12.3% reduction of the energy cost achieved by reducing the blow down rate. The rate of diesel consumption was reduced by 12.87% over the last period of the study as a result of the recommendations that have been submitted to the technicians and professionals. The sum of 22223.77 JD can be saved by using heavy fuel oil instead of diesel oil. Moreover, this study demonstrated that energy saving can be considered as an ideal choice to increase profit and promote competition within the poultry industry if the company adopts all the proposals and recommendations that have been offered by this study. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Momani L.A.,Tafila Technical University
Arkivoc | Year: 2012
The hydroxyprolines (Hyps) 2-6 are tested as organocatalysts for aldol, Michael additions, and Mannich reactions. The results are compared with the well-known analogous L-proline (1).The effect of the additional hydroxyl group and chiral center was investigated in the three types of reactions. Catalyst 2 shows an enhancement in the stereoselectivity of the aldol reaction, while 3 in Michael addition and 5 in Mannich reaction give the best results. Derivatives of hydroxyprolines show diversity in the catalytic behavior like 6. © ARKAT-USA, Inc.
Alqdah K.S.,Tafila Technical University
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011
This work presents an experimental study of an aqua-ammonia absorption system used for automobile air conditioning system, this system using the exhaust waste heat of an internal combustion diesel engine as energy source. The energy availability that can be used in the generator and the effect of the system on engine performance, exhaust emissions, auto air conditioning performance and fuel economy are evaluated. Because automotive air conditioning is one the most equipment that heavily uses CFC compounds and the leakage of CFCs from such air conditioners impact on the environment. The main purpose of this investigation to explore the feasibility of using waste energy to design the absorber and generation since these components are the most important components of absorption and they are directly influence the performance of the whole system. It has been found that the aqua-ammonia concentration effect the cooling capacity. The estimated cooling load for the automobile found to be within acceptable ranges which are about 1.37 ton refrigeration. The obtained results show that the coefficient of performance (COP) values directly proportional with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures but decrease with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Measured values for generator, absorber, and evaporator and condenser temperature were recorded and the coefficient of performance of the system varied between 0.85 and 1.04. The main components of the absorption cycle were designed and fabricated for optimal performance and could be rapidly transfer to the industry, The system was found to be applicable and ready to produce the required conditioning effect without any additional load to the engine. The proposed system decreases vehicle operating costs and environmental pollution caused by the heating system as well as causing a lower global warming. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Adaileh W.M.,Tafila Technical University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013
This work presents an experimental study to detecting the faults of engine using its noise. The noises produced by the engine and its accessory systems are numerous: whines, squeals, knock, rattles, and many other sounds. Faults diagnosis for Mitsubishis car engine model 2006 has been conducted and this diagnosis includes normal operating conditions for the engine (without malfunction) and for malfunctions situations at variable engine speed 1000,2000, 3000 and 4000 rpm respectively The engine data is acquired from a four cylinder one- petrol engine test bed under consideration at different operating states, and then simulated. Most of the conventional fault diagnosis techniques using sound emission and vibration signals are based on analyzing the signal amplitude in the time or frequency domain. For engine under fired and misfires spark the all the domain parameters (RMS amplitude, peak amplitude and energy) was processed using MATLAB software.It was found that fault detection and diagnosis for internal combustion engines is complicated by the presence of engine noise during normal operation. The average of amplitude found to be 450 x10-3m for normal engine working without any malfunction and 458x10-3m for misfire of one spark plug and for misfire of two spark plugs 457.8 x10-3m. In this study, some of the engine malfunction such as failure spark plug has been recorded, but we can generalize it to include all engine breakdown. Generally, sound emission signal serves as a promising alternative to the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in rotating machinery when the vibration signal is not available. This research paper explores that automobiles could be major sources of noise pollution. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of IC engine through acoustic signal analysis is an established technique for detecting early stages of component degradation. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Adaileh W.M.,Tafila Technical University |
Alqdah K.S.,Taibah University
Energy Procedia | Year: 2012
In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of compression ignition diesel engine were measured using a biodiesel as an alternative fuel. The tests were performed in Chemical and Mechanical Engineering department laboratories at steady state conditions for a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine loaded at variable engine speed between 1200-2600 rpm. The waste vegetable oil (cocking oil) used in this investigation transferred from Tafila Technical University restaurant collected and disposed in a suitable way. The testing results show without any modification to diesel engine, under all conditions dynamical performance kept normal, and the B20, B5 blend fuels (include 20%, 5% biodiesel respectively) led to satisfactory emissions at variable load. The experimental results compared with standard diesel show that biodiesel provided significant reductions in CO, and unburned HC, but the NOx was increased. Biodiesel has a 5.95 % increasing in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using B20 and B5 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NOx and brakespecific fuel consumption. The experimental results show that the fuel consumption rate, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature increased while the bsfc, emission indices of CO2, CO decreased with an increase of engine speed. Moreover, the engine power increased when increasing the biodiesel percentage varied from 1.23 to 3.2 for standard diesel while for B20 between 1.5 to 3.47.while brake specific energy consumption varied between 16.8 to 13.81 MJ/kW.kg for standard diesel, but for B5 found to be between 16.3 to 13 MJ/kW.kg. In particular, biodiesel produced with the addition of the peroxidation process had the lowest equivalence ratio and emission indices of CO2, CO. The emission of NOx among all of the test fuels found to be increased when using B5 and B20 instead of standard diesel and these results validate the data recorded by other previous work. Therefore, the peroxidation process can be used effectively to improve the fuel properties and reduce emissions when biodiesel is used. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Al-Momani L.A.,Tafila Technical University |
Lataifeh A.,Tafila Technical University
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013
A series of mono- and disubstituted O-ferrocenoyl conjugates of 3-trans- and 4-trans-hydroxy-L-proline amino acids are synthesized. These conjugates are protected by tert-butloxycarbonyl (Boc) group at the N-terminus. The Boc removal of the ferrocene (Fc) hydroxy-L-proline conjugates affords a series of mono- and disubstituted Fc conjugates containing free amine at the N-terminus. These conjugates are characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopies as well as mass (MS) spectrometry. The catalytic properties of the free amine Fc conjugates toward aldol addition reaction are studied. The enantioselectivity of the aldol reaction products in acetone solvent is determined by the position of the N-atom in the proline residue with respect to the proline point of attachment to the Fc scaffold. The 4-trans-hydroxy-L-proline containing Fc catalyst favors the production of the R-isomer, while Fc catalysts containing 3-trans-hydroxy-L- proline favors the production of the S-isomer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alahmer A.,Tafila Technical University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2013
This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0-30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (ηth) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NOx produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Azzam W.,Tafila Technical University
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2010
Molecular ordering of benzeneselenol (BSe) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(1 1 1) substrates have been investigated by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) . After short immersion time (10 min), elevated islands with height of 2.4 Å were found to cover the entire gold surface. On and among the islands, the STM results exhibited the formation of a highly ordered phase (α-phase) by BSe species. In the present study, a novel method is presented to completely eradicate the elevated gold-islands. The method depends on a repetitive STM scanning over the same part of the SAM at restricted tunnelling conditions. After almost 6 h of successive scanning, the surface becomes clean and free of the elevated islands. Moreover, this method was found to induce phase transformation into β-phase. The size of the ordered domains of the β-phase was found to exceed five times that of α-phase. Such a long-range ordering of the β-phase at room temperature has not been previously observed for any system on Au(1 1 1). After detailed analyses, the β-phase was found to have a 33.5% of lower packing density than that of α-phase. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Taamneh Y.,Tafila Technical University |
Taamneh M.M.,King Abdulaziz University
Desalination | Year: 2012
In this study, the effect of forced convection on the performance of pyramid-shaped solar still is investigated experimentally under outdoors of Tafila City (south of Jordan) climatic conditions. In this work, a solar still with a basin area of 0.95m 2 and a glass cover in the form of a pyramid has been designed and constructed. The experimental results illustrated that the use of fan work with photovoltaic solar panels is cost-effective and viable in enhancing the evaporation rate and hence freshwater production. Based on the performance evaluation, the daily productivity of freshwater was increased up to 25% compared to free convection solar still. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Al-Rawajfeh A.E.,Tafila Technical University
Thermal Science | Year: 2011
Scale formation represents a major operational problem encountered in thermal desalination plants. In current installed plants, and to allow for a reasonable safety margin, sulfate scale deposition limits the top brine temperature in multi-stage flash distillers up to 110-112 °C. This has significant effect on the unit capital, operational, and water production cost. In this work, the influence ofnanofiltration pretreatment on the scale deposition potential and increasing top brine temperature in multi-stage flash thermal desalination plants is modeled on the basis of mass transfer with chemical reaction of solutes in the brine. Full and partial nanofiltration pretreatment of the feed water were investigated. The top brine temperature can be increased in multi-stage flash by increasing the percentage of nanofiltration treated feed. Full nanofiltration pretreatment of the make-up allows top brine temperature in the multi-stage flash plant to be raised up to 175 °C in the case of di-hybrid nanofiltration/multi-stage flash and up to 165 °C in the case of tri-hybrid nanofiltration/reverse osmosis/multi-stage flash. The significant scale reduction is associated with increasing flashing range, unit recovery, unit performance, and will lead to reduction in heat transfer surface area, pumping power and therefore, wa ter pro duc tion cost.