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Pohang, South Korea

Chung T.-W.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim S.-J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Choi H.-J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Choi H.-J.,Pusan National University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

The growth and metastasis of human solid tumors and the development of conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory psoriasis, and others are regulated by the balance between angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors released in the angiogenic-pathological microenvironment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenic factor, is a potent endothelial-specific mitogen that activates endothelial cells in pathological angiogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of CAPE on VEGF-mediated angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, we show that CAPE suppressed VEGF-induced proliferation, tube formation, migration, the formation of actin stress fibers and loss of VE-cadherin at cell-cell contacts in endothelial cells, indicating the inhibition of VEGF-mediated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and its downstream signal activation in vitro. CAPE blocked VEGF-stimulated neovascularization in the Matrigel plugs assay, and reduced vascular permeability in mouse skin capillaries in vivo. CAPE inhibited the growth and neovascularization of primary tumor cells in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice inoculated with Lewis lung carcinoma, colon carcinoma, and melanoma cells. These results suggest that CAPE negatively modulates VEGF-induced angiogenesis by suppressing VEGFR-2 activation, and might be a therapeutic avenue for anti-angiogenesis. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Hwang I.-S.,Kyungpook National University | Lee J.,Kyungpook National University | Hwang J.H.,Kyungpook National University | Kim K.-J.,Tae Kyeung College | Lee D.G.,Kyungpook National University
FEBS Journal | Year: 2012

Silver nanoparticles have been shown to be detrimental to fungal cells although the mechanism(s) of action have not been clearly established. In this study, we used Candida albicans cells to show that silver nanoparticles exert their antifungal effect through apoptosis. Many studies have shown that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species induces and regulates the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, hydroxyl radicals are considered an important component of cell death. Therefore, we assumed that hydroxyl radicals were related to apoptosis and the effect of thiourea as a hydroxyl radical scavenger was investigated. We measured the production of reactive oxygen species and investigated whether silver nanoparticles induced the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals. A reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential shown by flow cytometry analysis and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were also verified. In addition, the apoptotic effects of silver nanoparticles were detected by fluorescence microscopy using other confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA and nuclear fragmentation, and the activation of metacaspases. Cells exposed to silver nanoparticles showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production. All other phenomena of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic features also appeared. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles possess antifungal effects with apoptotic features and we suggest that the hydroxyl radicals generated by silver nanoparticles have a significant role in mitochondrial dysfunctional apoptosis. © 2012 FEBS.

Cho J.H.,Yeungnam University | Kim M.J.,Yeungnam University | Kim K.J.,Tae Kyeung College | Kim J.-R.,Yeungnam University
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2012

Vascular cell senescence, induced by the DNA damage response or inflammatory stress, contributes to age-associated vascular disease. Using complementary DNA microarray technology, we found that the level of POZ/BTB and AT-hook-containing zinc finger protein 1 (PATZ1) is downregulated during endothelial cell (EC) senescence. PATZ1 may have an important role as a transcriptional repressor in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation; however, the role of PATZ1 in EC senescence and vascular aging remains unidentified. Knockdown of PATZ1 in young cells accelerated premature EC senescence, which was confirmed by growth arrest, increased p53 protein level and senescence-associated Β-galactosidase (SA-Β-gal) activity, and repression of EC tube formation. In contrast, overexpression of PATZ1 in senescent cells reversed senescent phenotypes. Cellular senescence induced by PATZ1 knockdown in young cells was rescued by knockdown of p53, but not by knockdown of p16 INK4a. PATZ1 knockdown increased ROS levels, and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine abolished EC senescence induced by PATZ1 knockdown. Notably, PATZ1 immunoreactivity was lower in ECs of atherosclerotic tissues than those of normal arteries in LDLR -/- mice, and immunoreactivity also decreased in ECs of old human arteries. These results suggest that PATZ1 may have an important role in the regulation of EC senescence through an ROS-mediated p53-dependent pathway and contribute to vascular diseases associated with aging. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Lee D.-M.,Yeungnam University | Bhat A.R.,Yeungnam University | Kim Y.-W.,Yeungnam University | Shin D.H.,Yeungnam University | And 6 more authors.
Animal Cells and Systems | Year: 2012

Sex hormones have long been considered to play an important role in bone turnover rate, periodontal diseases, and wound healing. We have studied the effect of porcine testis steroid extract (PTSE), an extract of porcine testes, which holds a good ratio of 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone), testosterone, androstenedione, 17β-estradiol, and estrone, on the healing rate of a standardized full-thickness linear wound on the back of the rat. Skin punch or carbon dioxide (CO2) laser methods were used to create the deep skin injury in two groups of animals. The animals were treated with the PTSE cream, control cream and Vaseline (control) to find out the effect in re-epithelialization, contraction, and formation of granulation and scar tissues. Histological examination after 21 days showed 100, 87.4, and 80.5% recovery of epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis, respectively in the PTSE-treated animals. Similarly, on the 15th day of treatment, complete healing of intact skin was observed in the PTSE cream-treated animals among the laser radiation group. Even though the beginning of re-epithelialization phase and completion of serum crust formation was also observed in the base cream- and Vaseline-treated animals respectively, the complete healing cycle was observed only in the PTSE-treated group. The white blood cell count in the PTSE-treated group showed that PTSE cream is nontoxic to animals. © 2012 Copyright Korean Society for Integrative Biology.

Lee W.,Kyungpook National University | Kim K.-J.,Tae Kyeung College | Lee D.G.,Kyungpook National University
BioMetals | Year: 2014

Silver nanoparticles are known to have antimicrobial properties and have been used extensively in medicine, although the mechanism(s) of action have not yet been clearly established. In the present study, the findings suggest a novel mechanism for the antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles on Escherichia coli, namely, the induction of a bacterial apoptosis-like response. We propose a possible mechanism for the bacterial apoptosis-like response that includes the following: accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (detected with H2DCFDA staining), increased intracellular calcium levels (detected with Fura-2 AM), phosphatidylserine exposure in the outer membrane (detected with Annexin V) which is the hallmarks of early apoptosis, disruption of the membrane potential [detected with DiBAC4(3)], activation of a bacterial caspase-like protein (detected by FITC-VAD-FMK staining) and DNA degradation (detected with TUNEL assay) which is the hallmarks of late apoptosis in bacterial cells treated with silver nanoparticles. We also performed RecA expression assay with western blotting and observed activation of SOS response to repair the damaged DNA. To summarize, silver nanoparticles are involved in the apoptosis-like response in E. coli and the novel mechanisms which were identified in this study, suggest that silver nanoparticles may be an effective antimicrobial agent with far lower propensity for inducing microbial resistance than antibiotics. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.

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