Chachoengsao, Thailand
Chachoengsao, Thailand

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Limmanee A.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Songtrai S.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Udomdachanut N.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Kaewniyompanit S.,Thai Tabuchi Electrical Co. | And 5 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2017

After 4 years of operation at Thailand Science Park, degradation analysis of 73 photovoltaic (PV) modules of four different PV technologies; multi c-Si, hetero-junction Si, micromorph and CIGS, has been carried out. The degradation rate (DR) of individual modules and array performance are presented. It was found that some micromorph (thin film Si 1) modules seriously degraded and were in failure mode, resulting in a severe degradation of the thin Si 1 array's performance. The average DR of other PV modules was found to range between 0.3 and 1.9%/year. The standard deviation (SD) of data from modules in the same array indicates the level of mismatch, which plays a role in evaluating array's performance. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) in this study was found to range between 4.1 and 14 baht/kWh, depending on PV technology and its DR. The results suggest that, without any reduction of costs, the LCOE of solar PV electricity in Thailand would possibly be comparable with the retail price when the present PV technology has DR of about 0.2%/year or lower. The database we obtained is informative and useful for a further study on PV reliability and cost of solar PV electricity in the tropics. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Limmanee A.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Udomdachanut N.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Songtrai S.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Kaewniyompanit S.,Thai Tabuchi Electrical Co. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2015

Performance loss rates of five different photovoltaic (PV) technologies operating under Thailand's climate have been derived from the first 3-year data. Although ambient temperature throughout the year in the tropics is relatively constant, we found remarkable seasonal variations in performance loss of the PV modules. The performance loss rates in rainy and dry seasons were severe, while those in summer were relatively slight. The soiling had great effect on the PV performance in the dry season, while the temperature was a key factor in the summer. The high module temperature in the summer caused high temperature loss but it also provided positive effect of recovering performance of thin film Si modules. In the rainy season, with less amount of irradiance and high humidity at the module surface the PV modules showed the highest performance loss rate. Our findings can be used to develop a better operations & maintenance (O&M) strategy for PV systems in the tropics, e.g., proper cleaning of PV modules during the dry season. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.


Limmanee A.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Udomdachanut N.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Songtrai S.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Kaewniyompanit S.,Thai Tabuchi Electrical Co. | And 5 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2016

This paper provides field performance and degradation information of Si wafer-based and thin film photovoltaic (PV) modules in a tropical region. We address the importance of temperature coefficient (TC) and the significance of the degradation rate (DR) of the modules operating under tropical climate. The PV modules with TC for power below -0.31%/°C have a great advantage in terms of energy yield. The DRs of various PV module types are widely different, ranging from 0.5 to 4.9%/year, which greatly affect their long-term performance. This paper also presents the degradation behavior of electrical characteristics such as I-V curve, open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current (Isc), fill factor (FF) and maximum power output (Pmax) for each PV type. The DRs of the field-test PV modules in Thailand are first reported in this study. The level of degradation we found in this study suggests a reduction of output power 10-50% over a twenty-five year lifetime, possibly increasing the levelized cost of electricity by up to double cost. The database of this case study is informative and useful for a further study on performance degradation in the tropics and a comparison study with other environmental conditions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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