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Moorkoth S.,Manipal University India | Gujar Y.,Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. | Bukka D.,TA Pai Management Institute TAPMI
Pharma Times | Year: 2013

After the enactment of Hatch Waxman Act, the outlook of generic pharmaceutical industry changed not only in US (United States), but also worldwide. This historic act perfectly balanced the need of consumers, generic industry and innovator companies. The generic approval pathway (ANDA; Abbreviated New Drug Application) created under this act allowed the proof of bioequivalency for approving a generic small molecule drug, thus avoiding lengthy and expensive clinical trials. Presently, Indian generics shares 30% of world generic market and 10% of US generic market. When it comes to biologics, the approval pathways for generics encompassed in the Hatch Waxman Act does not fit due to the complexity of biologics, which are mostly high molecular weight proteins. In 2010, the Biosimilar Act came into existence in US for approval of biosimilars. The guidelines specify a highly similar structure, and requirement of certain phases of clinical trials and immunogenicity studies for approval. Current FDA (Food and Drug Administration) guidelines on biosimilars are not much promising for the biosimilar industry as compared to the Hatch Waxman Act. This article critically analyses and compares the generic and biosimilar approval pathways and tries to find an answer to the question whether India can repeat its success in world generic market.

Kumar Mandal S.,Ta Pai Management Institute Tapmi | Madheswaran S.,Institute for Social and Economic Change
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper is to examine the existence and direction of the causal relationship between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry for the period 1979-80 to 2004-05. The most recently developed panel unit root, a heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based error correction model, is applied within a multivariate framework. The empirical results confirm a positive, long-run cointegrated relationship between output and energy consumption when heterogeneous state effects are taken into account. We also found a long-run, bi-directional relationship between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry for the study period, implying that an increase in energy consumption directly affects the growth of this sector and that growth stimulates further energy consumption. These empirical findings imply that energy consumption and output are jointly determined and affect each other. The empirical evidence also suggests the implementation of energy conservation policies oriented toward improving energy-use efficiency to avoid any negative impacts of the conservation policies on the growth of this industry. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Joy G.V.,Anna University | James P.S.,Ta Pai Management Institute Tapmi | Kumar N.S.,Anna University
International Journal of Value Chain Management | Year: 2014

The marketing world is spinning around different types of value for money strategies. All the sales promotion tools are assuring the customer about an incomparable deal. What more the customers are getting is always pacifying the consumer during his purchasing efforts. Value for money-based sales promotion is one of the most significant strategies that can be adopted by the mobile handset marketer. The present study had taken four value-based sales promotion tools such as product bundling offer, exchange offer, free after sales service for limited period and 'Take one get one free' offer. The study also analysed the impact of the said factors in consumer electronics segment among consumers of different demographic profiles. It also tested the influence of the four factors in value perception of customers. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Energy use in the production of desirable output often results in the generation of undesirable emission with detrimental impact on the environment, and whose disposal is frequently monitored by public authorities. Previous studies, however, paid little attention to undesirable output and environmental regulation related to its disposal while estimating energy use efficiency. Analysis of energy efficiency ignoring undesirable output could result in biased estimates of efficiency. Thus the aim of this paper is to estimate energy use efficiency in the presence of energy related undesirable emission by taking Indian cement industry as a suitable context of my analysis. Depending on the presence and absence of undesirable output and environmental regulation, three measures of efficiency have been estimated at the state level from 2000-01 to 2004-05 by applying Data Envelopment Analysis. Energy efficiency is defined as the ability of the producer to reduce the energy input to the largest extent possible, conditional on the given level of output and non-energy inputs. Empirical results reveal that energy efficiency estimates are biased if only desirable output is considered. Results also demonstrate that environmental regulation has a reinforcing effect on energy use efficiency. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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