Inagaki H.,University of Tokyo |
Kiyokawa Y.,University of Tokyo |
Tamogami S.,T. Hasegawa Co. |
Watanabe H.,Tokyo University of Science |
And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014
Chemical communication plays an important role in the social lives of various mammalian species. Some of these chemicals are called pheromones. Rats release a specific odor into the air when stressed. This stress-related odor increases the anxiety levels of other rats; therefore, it is possible that the anxiety-causing molecules are present in the stress-related odorants. Here, we have tried to identify the responsible molecules by using the acoustic startle reflex as a bioassay system to detect anxiogenic activity. After successive fractionation of the stress-related odor, we detected 4-methylpentanal and hexanal in the final fraction that still possessed anxiogenic properties. Using synthetic molecules, we found that minute amounts of the binary mixture, but not either molecule separately, increased anxiety in rats. Furthermore, we determined that the mixture increased a specific type of anxiety and evoked anxiety-related behavioral responses in an experimental model that was different from the acoustic startle reflex. Analyses of neural mechanisms proposed that the neural circuit related to anxiety was only activated when the two molecules were simultaneously perceived by two olfactory systems. We concluded that the mixture is a pheromone that increases anxiety in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying a rat pheromone. Our results could aid further research on rat pheromones, which would enhance our understanding of chemical communication in mammals. © 2014, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Akasaka K.,Shokei Gakuin University |
Tamogami S.,T. Hasegawa Co. |
Beeman R.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Mori K.,Toyo Gosei Co.
Tetrahedron | Year: 2011
All four stereoisomers of 4,8-dimethyldecanal (1) were synthesized from the enantiomers of 2-methyl-1-butanol and citronellal. Enantioselective GC analysis enabled separation of (4R,8R)-1 and (4R,8S)-1 from a mixture of (4S,8R)-1 and (4S,8S)-1, when octakis-(2,3-di-O-methoxymethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)- γ-cyclodextrin was employed as a chiral stationary phase. Complete separation of the four stereoisomers of 1 on reversed-phase HPLC at -54 °C was achieved after oxidation of 1 to the corresponding carboxylic acid 12 followed by its derivatization with (1R,2R)-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximido) cyclohexanol, and the natural 1 was found to be a mixture of all the four stereoisomers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
T. Hasegawa Co. | Date: 2012-06-04
Provided is an acid taste and/or acid smell-reducing agent that can effectively reduce acid taste/acid smell without adding off-taste and off-smell. The acid taste and/or acid smell-reducing agent is composed of 4,7-tridecadienal and/or 2,4,7-tridecatrienal and is added to a food or drink having acid taste and/or acid smell.
T. Hasegawa Co. | Date: 2011-08-02
The present invention provides a flavor composition that can impart an ORAC value of 1 molTE/g or more to foods. The flavor composition is prepared by mixing natural essential oils and flavor components having ORAC values.
T. Hasegawa Co. | Date: 2011-09-22
The present invention relates to improvement of the unpleasant taste characteristic of potassium salts without adversely affecting the salty taste of the potassium salts and provides a method for reducing sodium contents in foods and drinks without reducing salty taste of the foods and drinks and also provides sodium-reduced foods and drinks. The present invention relates to a taste-improving agent for a potassium salt or a potassium salt-containing food or drink, and the agent contains a phthalide as an active ingredient.