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Use of the forest is the oldest form of human activity and also occurs if it takes place without the physical pres-ence of man in the woods, becoming destructive action - intentional or unintentional, or creative activity - iden-tifying and implementing specific needs. Use of forest functions such as: cultural, moral, ethical, religious, and many others, is not always quantifiable, and their direct measurement and evaluation, can be very difficult. This is due to both lack of appropriate economic tools and methods for the direct environmental analysis, as well as an inability to identify the various functions played by forests. The article is discussing the history of sustainable development in forestry, which opens with the law signed in 1364 by Philip VI of France, ordering that owners of the forest must take care of it. The next great theorists and practitioners of Forestry (Carlovitz, Cotta, Hundeshagen, Heyer), develop the concept, building a cohesive, well thought-structures of proceedings in the context of preserving stability, continuity and uniformity forest use. The real problem in implementation of the concept of sustainable forestry and forest multifunctionality, is un-solvable difficulty in anticipating the expectations of future generations as to the condition, appearance and composition of future forests. should be noted that promises benefits of the terms used in sustainable forest man-agement (SFM), in relation to the multifunctional forestry cannot be met simultaneously and immediately. In forestry practice, all the forest functions, can be met only in a very long time horizon - calculated life expectancy of trees and stands. The search for solutions in this area should include not only areas of the modern, current knowledge, both the forest and in other branches of science, but also traditional knowledge. This would mean, that traditional know-ledge, significantly important for the practice of forestry, can be the basis for the understanding of the multi-functionality of the forest in the context of sustainable development.


Obstawski P.,Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
Przeglad Elektrotechniczny | Year: 2012

In article represented the possibility of utilization parametral identification to diagnostics of heat exchangers in operate conditions. The worked out on the ground of the real measuring data model in differential equations form transformed to transfer function figure. Marked step characteristic and Bode characteristic of individual components exchanger, on the ground defined it's dynamics, which makes possible execution optimization work of exchanger in operate conditions.


The aim of this study was an evaluation of suitability of the conceptual Nash model for the simulation a flow hydrograph in a urbanized catchment - in the example of the Potok Słuzewiecki catchment in Warsaw. The evaluation of suitability of the model has been carried out on the basis of the analysis of the compatibility between measured and simulated maximum flows of hydrographs. This paper presents a procedure of the computer model developed by the author, which was used for simulation flows. The range of the work included the analysis of parameters of the Nash model (N, K), which were determined based on rainfall-runoff data for 13 selected events. The parameters in the Nash model were calculated using the method of statistical moments for two scenarios: assuming rainfall depths determined on the basis of one or two rainfall stations.


Chojnacka-Ozga L.,Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie | Gomolka J.,Nadlesnictwo Brzeg | Ozga W.,Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to preliminary defi ne the factors affecting the formation of lightning gaps in forest areas in the lowland area. During realization of the research purpose, there was carried out the analysis of research materials inventory stands at the Brzeg Forest District, and their verification has been made during identifying the damage in the area. As a result of the studies, there were identifi ed and characterized 110 lightning gaps. Individual trees were damaged in about 87% of cases. Damaged trees or groups of trees were mostly located at the southern and south-eastern edge of forests. In more than 90% cases, investigated objects were localized on the forest edge or at the maximum distance of 2 km inside the forest. The terrain had also the infl uence on lightning gaps occurrence - the trees situated on slope of acclivity were more frequently damaged. Almost 60% of lightnings had place on the types of soils which are appropriate for humid group of forest abodes. Most often species hit by lightnings were: oak - 72,5%; pinetree - 16,5%. Mainly the trees from fi rst three places from Kraft's classifi cation were hit: oak - 1 (27%); 2 (35%); 3 (30%); pine tree - 1 (27%); 2 (52%); 3 (11%). The most exposed were the oldest trees in age of cutting down or around this age. These are mainly standstills or trees on the walls of forest stands. © 2014, WULS - SGGW Press. All rights reserved.


Adamska A.,Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie | Rutkowska J.,Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej | Year: 2014

This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched- chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment. Copyright © Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Dos̈wiadczalnej 2015.

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