Gödöllő, Hungary
Gödöllő, Hungary
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Ferenc P.,SZIE MKK | Weidel W.,SZIE MKK | Szabina N.,University of West Hungary | Laszlo G.,University of West Hungary | And 3 more authors.
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2012

The authors evaluated the milk composition and certain physical properties of milk from Hungarian native goats (n=30) according to somatic cell count (SCC) on a goat farm in Gyor-Moson-Sopron County. Milk samples were collected both in the morning and evening periods at the beginning, midpoint and end of lactation. Fat, protein, and lactose contents of milk samples were measured, and their pH value, titratable acidity, somatic cell and bacteria counts were also determined. The milk samples were divided into 4 experimental groups, depending on the somatic cell count: <400 thousand, 401 to 1000 thousand, 1001 to 3500 thousand, >3501 thousand. The investigation showed a positive correlation (P<0.01) between SCC and protein content (0.30) and pH value (0.41), and negative correlation between SCC and lactose (-0.41), titratable acidity (-0.33) and daily milk production (-0.64). Furthermore, SCC correlated to total bacteria count (r=0.65; P<0.001). They have shown that somatic cell count has significant effect on goat milk production, milk composition and physical and hygienic properties.

Levente K.,SZIE MKK | Krisztina N.,SZIE | Kultus K.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Otto S.,SZIE | Janos T.,SZIE MKK
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2012

Stress during milking not only affects the welfare of the cows, but also has a negative influence on milk ejection, resulting in an increase in residual milk which may impair the animal's health, as well. In this study the authors evaluated the stress response of milking cows (n=9) during the evening milking procedure in a herringbone milking system. Changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during early afternoon (reference period) were compared to those measured during the different parts of the evening milking: 1. before the evening milking, in the milking parlour, waiting for being milked, 2. during milking, 3. in the milking parlour after being let off from the milking stall. HR was significantly higher during the entire evening milking procedure compared to the reference period. This difference is most probably due to the circadian rhythm of HR. HRV during milking did not differ significantly from the reference period, but HRV was significantly lower during the waiting period in the milking parlour after milking. The results suggest that the evening milking was not really stressful for these animals. The greatest stress level was caused by the anticipation for getting out from the milking parlour. The authors also discuss the effect of certain illnesses, e.g. subclinical ketosis, and heat stress on heart rate variability and on the stress-coping ability during milking. Results of these studies may help the interpretation of the recent findings and may also contribute to differentiate acute and chronic stress.

Supplementing the diet with gluconeogenetic precursors in dairy cows is a commonly used practice to alleviate energy deficiency and to prevent or treat some metabolic disorders, like fatty liver or ketosis. Due to their rapid and efficient absorption and their property to increase the glucose supply as precursors for gluconeogenesis, the most commonly used materials are propylene glycol, glycerol and propionates. However, beside the method and period of supplementation, the energetic condition of the animals alters also their effectiveness. The aim of the authors was to review the literature on the effect of the most frequently used gluconeogenic precursors on milk yield and milk components, on energetic profile and some reproductive parameters.

Pasteurization of freshly milked cows' milk was carried out by microwave-based treatment and traditional heat transfer. The efficiency of heat treatments were compared with the analysis of the total viable cell count and the peroxidase enzyme activity. In case of the latter the authors found that the peroxidase enzyme activity was detectable even at higher temperatures (T>80 °C) during the microwave heat treatment, as opposed to the convective heat treatment where the enzyme was inactivated at Ta≈8 °C. This was the first time that a significant difference was demonstrated between the effects of heat treatments.

Peter P.,SZIE MKK | Ferenc P.,SZIE MKK | Akos B.,SZIE MKK | Hamar Eniko A.,KRF | Laszlo B.,SZIE MKK
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2010

Food safety and traceability control in the production of agricultural primary products becomes more important criteria for the consumers because industrial and agricultural activity has also resulted in increased environmental concentrations of trace metals. The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in different organs (brain, liver and kidney), and in different parts of meat (shoulder, loin and leg) in ewes and lambs The highest Pb concentration was found in liver (ewes: 0.593 mg/kg wet wt; lambs: 0.427 mg/kg wet wt), and the highest Cd concentration was detected in kidney (ewes: 0.478 mg/kg wet wt; lambs: 0.385 mg/kg wet wt). The contents of cadmium and lead in brain, liver, lung and meat taken from lambs were lower, compared to the same organs and tissues of ewes. Based on the results, it can be stated that even if the heavy metal contents of grass and forages meet the permissible limits of regulations, it is not necessarily a guarantee for the low heavy metal content of primary food products.

Intestinal absorption of lycopene and its deposition into the yolk was investigated in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The experiment was divided into three periods. In the first phase, (0-2 nd week) in the depletion period all birds were fed on a rice based, carotenoid free diet. In the second stage (3 rd-7 th week) 10 quails were fed on the depletion diet while 10 birds on the same diet plus supplemented with a large dose (500 mg/food kg) of lycopene (Redivivo ™ DSM). In the final part (8 th and 9 th week) of the experiment all birds received a corn based commercial layer feed. Blood samples were taken at the end of 2 nd, 7 th and 9 th weeks of the experiment. At the end of the second experimental phase, 5-5 quails were lege artis killed and two parts of the small intestine (duodenum and jejunum) were cut off. These segments were washed out with ice cold physiological saline and the mucous membrane was prepared and homogenized, and liver samples were collected at the same time, too. Eggs from each period and treatment were collected all over the experiment. The yolk colour was determined every week by Yolk Colour Fan (DSM). The lycopene concentration of blood, liver, yolk and the mucous membrane samples were determined by isocratic-reverse phase HPLC. The results indicate that lycopene absorption takes place in the investigated segments of small intestine in Japanese quail. It was determined that the mucous membrane of jejunum contains higher concentration of lycopene than the duodenum (p<0.05). The dye accumulated in the yolk resulted in intensive yellow colour (12-13 YCF score) compared to those eggs which were produced in the carotenoid free diet group (p<0.001).

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