SZIE AOTK

Budapest, Hungary

SZIE AOTK

Budapest, Hungary
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The authors have evaluated a new cow-side test in Hungarian dairy herds. With these measurements the occurrence of subclinical ketosis was tested. Twenty-nine dairy farms participated in the study, with a number of 10-12 animals on each farms. All samplings were carried out from day 7 prior to calving till day 14 after calving. 294 animals were sampled in the study by taking blood sample from the coccygeal vein and the level of the beta hydroxy butyrate (BHB) was measured in the peripheral blood. The measurements were carried out with a portable hand held device (Precision Xtra, Abbot Laboratories). The BHB concentrations measured at the farm showed a strong and significant correlation with the samples evaluated in the laboratory before and after freezing (r>0.92, P<0.001). 12.9% of the animals showed elevated levels of BHB (threshold 1.4 mmol/l), and 27.5% of the herds were affected. When setting up a lower threshold (0.85 mmol/l), 24.8% of the animals and 55.2% of the herds were affected. Approximately 5%of the examined animals showed higher than 3.0 mmol/L BHB level indicating clinical ketosis. The pathological history of these animals did not show any sign of metabolic disease, therefore the medical treatment of these animals was necessary. There was an elevation in the level of BHB in the over conditioned cows, however the animals with lower body condition scores (<3.0-3.5) also had a higher BHB concentration (OR=7.5, P<0.001). Parity also increased the percentage of elevated concentrations, after 3 or more calvings the odds of hyperketonaemic cows was double (OR=2.3, P=0.023). Different clinical diseases (mainly puerperal metritis and retained foetal membranes) also increased the risk of subclinical ketosis (OR=2.5, P=0.014). At the time of the study 30 animals had more than one clinical disease, 23 cows had two, 5 cows had three, 2 cows had four different clinical diseases. Based on these results the authors advise the use of hand-held device in the field.


Zoltan S.,SZIE AOTK | Csaba B.A.,SZIE AOTK | Andras H.,SZIE AOTK | Jozsef S.,Koros 2000 Kft | Otto S.,SZIE AOTK
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2010

The authors' objective was to introduce a dynamic voluntary waiting period in a Holstein-Friesian dairy farm and making interventions in order to decrease the days open from calving to conception and the Al index, and to increase the first service conception rate from calving until rebreeding and fertilization. They divided the cows into two groups, according to the control reproductive ultrasonographic examinations at 30 to 43 DIM. In the control group the routine reproductive management (Al started from 42th day after calving) was used, while in the study group a dynamic voluntary waiting period of 60 (daily milk production <35 kg) and 90 (daily milk production >35 kg) days was introduced. After it all cows without observed oestrus were synchronized by PGF2α or OvSynch® protocol. Pregnancy was determined by means of ultrasonography between 28 and 42 days after Al and all non-pregnant cows were resynchronized (PGF2α or OvSynch®). The first service conception rate {Figure), the days until first Al (Table 2), the open days (Table 3) , the number of inseminations and services per conception {Table 4) as well as the cost benefit of the treatments {Table 5) were evaluated and compared. Although the calving to conception interval was shorter with 11.8 days, the results have not shown statistically significant differences between the groups. Further studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of using dynamic voluntary waiting period in high producing Holstein-Friesian dairy farms.


Levente K.,Allattenyesztes tudomanyi Intezet | Fruzsina Luca K.,Allattenyesztes tudomanyi Intezet | Viktor J.,SZIE AOTK | Otto S.,MTA SZIE Nagyallatklinikai Kutatocsoport | Janos T.,Allattenyesztes tudomanyi Intezet
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2014

The authors compared heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters of dairy cows (N=18; parity: 2.34±1.12; milk yield: 24.40±6.78 kgld; DIM: 148.30±57.44) during milking in a conventional system to those of the same animals when milked after changeover to an automatic milking system. They analyzed HRV parameters in frequency (IF, HF, IF/HF) and geometric domain by Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2, SD2ISD1). When conventional milking was in operation, HR was higher in the holding area, before entering the milking parlour/milking unit and during milking (P=0.000; P=0.000; P=0.046, respectively) compared to HR in the mentioned phases in the automatic milking system. Sympathetic HRV parameters SD2 and 5D2/SD1 measured in the conventional system during the phases of waiting in the holding area, before entering the milking parlour/milking unit, and during udder preparation were also higher compared to automatic milking (P=0.012 and P=0.013; P=0.0012 and P=0.004; P=0.033 and P=0.031, respectively). Based on the results, the conventional milking process imposed greater stress on the animals, particularly in the holding area, before entering the milking parlour/milking unit and during udder preparation.


Agnes S.,SZIE AOTK | Istvan H.,Borsod Abauj Zemplen Megyei Kormanyhivatal | Jozsef F.,Euvet Bt. | Laszlo O.,SZIE AOTK
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2013

Successful control and eradication programs are applied against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) infection in a number of European countries. It should be a case at issue in Hungary as well, in order to maintain a competitive cattle farming. The authors review state veterinary and management aspects of control and eradication of BVD. The first step of any control program should be two-fold: (1) confirm the presence or absence of BVDV in a herd by antibody (serological) testing and (2) identification of persistently infected (PI) animal(s) (if occurs) by viral antigen detection. Eradication by 'test and remove' may take place in low prevalence herds only. 'Roll over' method is rarely used, but may be applied in some dairy herds. Depopulation-repopulation is fast and efficient, but very expensive way of eradication. Individual certification of BVDV free status should be a requirement, similarly to TBC, Brucellosis, EBL and IBR, in case of establishing a new herd. As it is applied for the breeding bulls now, cows and heifers should also have a BVDV antigen and antibody negative laboratory certificate within 30 days before domestic movement for breeding purpose. The authors suggest to aim the PI free status of the cattle population, as the first step of a national eradication program. To achieve that, each herd should be submitted for a herd scanning examination from pooled (milk or serum) samples, following by the individual identification and subsequent culling of PI animals. In order to continuous check of PI free status, 10-15 serum samples from heifers of 8-12 months of age should be tested in every 6 month.


Clinical and subclinical paratuberculosis (PTBC) causes significant herd-level losses on dairy farms. This study was carried out in a Holstein-Friesian dairy farm with 900 cows in Western Hungary, where 9.0% seropositivity had been found in 2008 by the authors. Positive animals were marked, followed up, but were not separated. After analyzing production data of 2009, it was concluded that intensive reproduction management was not beneficial in seropositive cows, because even by high expenditures on reproduction only 33 calves were born from 220 cows and the PTBC prevalence increased to 12.1%, as well. Therefore, a strict PTBC control plan was set up in March 2011 to reduce its prevalence. The key points of the control plan were monitored based on serologic tests, isolation of seropositive animals, improvement of the hygiene of calving and calf feeding and proper handling of manure, but special attention was paid to the education of farm workers, as well. The program resulted in that the seropositivity reduced to 5.1% by the beginning of 2013. Herd managers decided to cull all PTBC positives from April 2013 (cows in their late pregnancy were culled after calving). In the study period of 15. 08. 2009-31. 03. 2013 the somatic cell count (SCC) of the seropositive cows' milk was significantly higher than that of the seronegative cows. Insemination index of PTBC positive cows was also significantly higher than that of the seronegative cows, as well, until November 2011, which caused more than 7250 € herd-level extra costs (5€ cost per average cow). Death rate and culling rate of seropositive cows were also greatly larger, causing more than 238.000 € cost on the farm in the study period (166 € loss per average cow) and 91% of this was related to premature culling. The results suggest that paratuberculosis causes serious economic losses, but successful control programs can be set up against this disease.


Frequent milking (3 or more times a day) of dairy cows has emerged as a profitable management tool for dairy herds to increase milk production. In their study the authors made the economic analysis of a management measurement in a largescale Holstein-Friesian dairy herd having 150 milking cows in the south-eastern part of Hungary; they compared the relevant production parameters, costs and income, which were affected by the management change, in the year of 2011 (two milkings a day) to those in 2012 (three milkings a day). Three milkings a day brought about 7 349 925 HUF (44 535 HUF/cow) annual extra net milk receipts coming from the greater milk yield in the herd. The curative drug cost of udder health was 61 346 HUF (427 HUF/cow) less in 2012 than in 2011. In contrast with these positive items, the increased milking frequency resulted in 135 500 HUF (818 HUF/cow) more annual udder disinfectant costs, and the disinfection of the milking equipment cost 85 038 HUF (487 HUF/cow) more in 2012. The extra labour hours of the milkers and the herdsmen due to the three milking a day caused 6 728 690 HUF (42 073 HUF/cow) more labour cost in 2012. Furthermore, if it is assumed that the huge increase in the mortality and culling rate in 2012 was caused by the more frequent milking, the management change resulted in another 4 803 727 HUF (24 047 HUF/cow) annual extra cost compared to 2011. In summary, on the basis of the surveyed production, income and cost data of the two years compared to one another it can be concluded that the change from the two milking a day to the three milking a day in the examined herd would have been beneficial only (+462 042 HUF/year/herd, +1 584 HUF/year/cow), if the greater number of cow deaths and early culling had not been caused by the management change. However, further research is needed to examine the strength of this assumed relationship.


Zoltan L.,Corvinus Egyetem | Gyula K.,Corvinus Egyetem | Laszlo O.,SZIE AOTK
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2012

The use of live organisms as weapon has been seen throughout the history of mankind. In our age the growing global tension, the several unserviceable nations and the multitudinous occurrence of low-intensity conf licts increase the risk of biological terror attacks even in Hungary. In case of a contingent biological terror attack the veterinarians will become key f igures, f ighting in the foref ront, because 60% of the humán contagious diseases are zoonosis and the food-chain is an easily attackable target. Hence, in the article the authors review the concepts, history and f uture trends of bio, agro and food terrorism, and the possible impacts of bioterrorism on food-chain, public health, economy and the whole society.


Szilvia V.,Vegzos Joghallgato | Laszlo O.,FVM Elelmiszerlancfelugyeleti Foosztaly | Laszlo V.,SZIE AOTK
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2010

The authors summarize the Hungarian system of penalties sentenced in animal cruelty cases. The authors establish the fact, that there is no factum of a misdemeanor against violation of the rules of animal protection - there is a special legal institution, the animal welfare fine instead. Based on the Criminale Code, the authors present the sanctions, namely the injunctions, the main- and supplimentary penalties used against the offenders. Those legal facts, felonies and delicts are listed, which are related to animal protection. The authors analyse the imposed penalties in practice. They state, that the authorities responsible for food safety executed 5-20 000 animal welfare inspections and imposed animal welfare fine 3-55 times annually in the last five years. In Hungary, at the beginning of 2010 two offenders were in jail because of committing animal cruelty. In one of the counties, 20 animal cruelty judgments were born during four years. The penalties were the following: reprimand in 2 cases, release on parole in 8 cases, pecuniary penalty in 6 cases, suspended imprisonment in 2 cases, in addition 1 imprisonment and 1 labor in the public interest. Finally, the authors focuse on the possibility of mediation as an alternative method.


After having described the evolution of digestive types, the author touches the relation of nutrition and diseases. In the following the definition of nutrigenomics, nutrigenetics, as well as the single nucleoted polymorphism (SNP) is clarified. The meaning and the main classes of epigenomics and the newly discovered role of microflora are also given. The next part overviews the fields of nutrigenomics, namely the effect of major nutrients, metals, vitamins and functional foods on the gene expression. After the description of the metabolic imprinting and fetal obesity, the basic trials of the epigenomics, the confirmed epigenetics-originated syndromes (in the given individual or in the first generation) are given. The most interesting transgenerational epigenomic cases are also described. The author shows psychological cases of abnormal dietary habit. Finally, he gives a scientific analysis of the extraordinary or extreme dietary systems.


Peter L.,SZIE AOTK
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2012

Malicious, deliberate contamination of food or food and water supplies with different biological, chemical and physical agents or radionuclear materials for terrorist purposes is a real threat to the civilian populations worldwide. Food bioterrorism refers to an act or threat of deliberate contamination of food with biological agents, including bacteria, viruses, parasites and bacterial toxins. This review article highlights the main biological agents that might be expected to be used for malicious contamination of food and water supplies, and discusses the possibilities of their application as bioterrorism weapons.

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