Budapest, Hungary
Budapest, Hungary
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Melinda A.,University of West Hungary | Martina O.,University of West Hungary | Janan J.,SZIE | Endre S.,University of West Hungary | And 2 more authors.
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2011

The authors studied the conformation of twinning on three farms in a 10-year period (1998-2007). From 19,870 calving, 693 were twinning calving (3.48%), of which 637 bulls, 615 heifers were born and 143 were born dead. From 486 heifers (1998-2005) which were born from twinning, 220 were requalified in the farm, 15 (requalified) have been got into export. From twins 180 were excluded from breeding, 71 were dead and 129 heifers have not yet been examined. The twinning occurs in the 2nd-3rd lactation most frequently. From 7326 calvings of first lactation cows 60 were twinning, which corresponds to 0.82%. Twinning born heifers will be used later for breeding by reason of slower development. The authors examined 220 heifers from twinning and 5401 heifers from single calving. In case of cattle from twin born, the average first calving age was 827 days, from single it was 812 days. Since the difference is only 15 days, it proves that the development of twinning heifers is not significantly below that of single born peers. In the three dairy farms, the gestation period of twins' mothers was 272 days, while that of mothers of single was 277, the difference is 5 days. Thus, the twin individuals born with an average of 5 days earlier, but 15 days later will be used for breeding. The " disadvantage" is 10 days compared to peers, which is negligible and by special care this time is further reduced. The 305 days lactation milk production of twins is in excess of peers, their characteristics chemical composition (fat%, protein%) is slightly weaker than the peers, but this difference is negligible. The experts mentioned problems in the involution of twins' mothers. The period to first service was an average of 79 days after single calving in case of 15 848 mothers and 91 days after twinning of 460 mothers. The difference is 12 days which is further reduced by care, targeted therapies, and proper feeding. Between single calving and twin calving interval there is also not a big difference. Calving interval is 432 days after twinning and 421 days after single calving. The size of culling between cattle from twin birth and cattle from single birth is similar. Economic study was carried out on the calving and was based on the number of individuals. As from every twinning, 2 or more calves were born, therefore one calving get 2 or more calves compared to single birth. Allowing for a higher mortality and births of mixed-sex individuals heifer in the breeding distribution of calving percentages of individuals set on the basis of the number is still higher. In summary, the twinning in Hungarian housing and feeding conditions may mean economic advantage.

Levente K.,SZIE MKK | Krisztina N.,SZIE | Kultus K.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Otto S.,SZIE | Janos T.,SZIE MKK
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2012

Stress during milking not only affects the welfare of the cows, but also has a negative influence on milk ejection, resulting in an increase in residual milk which may impair the animal's health, as well. In this study the authors evaluated the stress response of milking cows (n=9) during the evening milking procedure in a herringbone milking system. Changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during early afternoon (reference period) were compared to those measured during the different parts of the evening milking: 1. before the evening milking, in the milking parlour, waiting for being milked, 2. during milking, 3. in the milking parlour after being let off from the milking stall. HR was significantly higher during the entire evening milking procedure compared to the reference period. This difference is most probably due to the circadian rhythm of HR. HRV during milking did not differ significantly from the reference period, but HRV was significantly lower during the waiting period in the milking parlour after milking. The results suggest that the evening milking was not really stressful for these animals. The greatest stress level was caused by the anticipation for getting out from the milking parlour. The authors also discuss the effect of certain illnesses, e.g. subclinical ketosis, and heat stress on heart rate variability and on the stress-coping ability during milking. Results of these studies may help the interpretation of the recent findings and may also contribute to differentiate acute and chronic stress.

Janos G.,SZIE | Peter P.,SZIE | Johanna B.,Talpas Allatorvosi Rendelo
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2010

The authors review a case of subileus caused by sand particles passively swallowed during the feeding in a 5 years old female desert sand boa {Eryx miliaris). The snake was kept in a 30×45×30 cm terrarium heated with 40 W soil heater, the substrate was river sand. The snake was fed basically on alive and dead mice killed by CO. Several weeks before the examination the snake refused the food and stopped eating. An object composed of swallowed sand particles was detected by X-ray, endoscope and ultrasound examination. The sand was swallowed passively with the prey animals during the feeding and accumulated as thick pseudoconcretion before the cloaca. Circumscribed local inflammation was observed, caused by the partide. During the endoscopic examination the partiele that caused the subileus could be removed via the cloaca. With this case the authors suggest to use pit sand or soil as ground for sand boas, which do not cause ileus or subileus.

The authors review the "individual" and combined effects of two hormone families, the estrogens and thyroid hormones, in the central regulation of feedintake. The interactions between estrogens and thyroid hormones take place both intercellularly and intracellularly and integrate on at least three levels: Specific nuclear receptors, putative plasma membrane-bound/incorporated ligand-receptor complexes that activate rapid, non-genomic intracellular signalling cascades, and crosstalks on multiple levels of genomic and/or non-genomic estrogen- and thyroid hormone-activated intracellular signalling pathways. The significance of integral hormone effects in feeding is also discussed.

Csaba J.,SZIE | Ferenc G.,Klinikus Allatorvos | Mira M.,SZIE | Gabor M.,SZIE
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2011

The authors describe a pathological case of a 5 years old Charolais × Hungarian spotted crossbred cattle which died suddenly on 17th January 2011 due to acute rumen overload and dilatation. The beef cattle herd where the cattle originated from spent most of its time on a swampy pasture surrounded by puddles. The herd including the above mentioned animal received parenteral anti-parasitic treatment, ivermectin injection in 1 ml/50 kg body weigh dose on 27th December 2010, as the previous routine parasitology screening revealed threadworm infection in the young individuals. During the pathological examination on the left ventral surface of the rumen in a triangular area of 80×60×40 cm size chronic, active, diffuse peritonitis was observed. Along the blood vessels and the peripheral nerves supplying the rumen numerous parasitic forms were seen underneath the serous surface encapsulated with hyperemic angiofibroblast tissue and also some freely moving worms were identified on the serous surface. The parasitological examination stated Setaria labiatopapillosa infection. Histopathology showed chronic, active demarcating inflammation (peritonitis) with signs of angiofibroblast tissue proliferation and remarkable neoangiogenesis, lympho-plasmo-histiocytic and neutrophil granulocytic infiltration around the dead worms positioned in the subserosa. Around the n. vagus branches, innervating the wall of the rumen, in the perineural spaces perineuritis with inflammatory oedema and lymphocytic infiltration whose diagnosed. In the connective tissue stroma of the underlying deep smooth muscle layers also inflammatory oedema, vascular dilation and lymphocytic infiltration was observed. During the dissection of the carcass on the left caudo-ventral abdominal area a fresh 5-10 cm long rupture of the abdominal fascia covering the subcutaneous connective tissue and the outer surface of the abdominal musculature and a fresh 10 cm long partial rupture of the right caudal side of the m. rectus abdominis were detected. In the adjacent skin tissue lesions of continuity were not observed. The routine aerobic bacteriological examination was carried out from the affected parts of the serous membrane, from the liver, spleen and the ruptured area of the abdominal wall with negative results. According to the authors supposition necrosis inducing tissue debris (necrotoxins) from the previously treated and killed 5. labiatopapillosa parasites triggered the extensive, chronic, active peritonitis and perineuritis, it may caused dysfunction of the n. vagus and consequential abnormal motility (hypotonia) of the rumen leading to pathological stasis and accumulation of the rumen content. This abnormal function most probably was increased by the pain on the area of the peritonitis together with the histologically proved myositis of the wall. The question rises if the high dosage steroid administered at the beginning of the process could have influenced the outcome of the disease.

Schwarz P.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Lukacova A.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Formicki G.,Pedagogical University of Cracow | Massanyi P.,Slovak University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2013

Heavy metal toxicity is one of the major current environment health problems and is potentially dangerous because of bio-accumulation through the food chain, which can cause hazardous effects on human health. The toxic heavy metals of great concern are Cd, Pb and Hg which are usually associated with harmful effects in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of selected contaminants in cattle meat and milk and to compare the observed concentration limits with data from the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. Samples of milk were analysed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results obtained and expressed in showed that milk had in average tolerable concentration of As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni (13.0, 0.75, 4.5, 0.0625, 25.0, 31.25, μg kg-1, respectively) as well as meat (25.5, 2.55, 14.0, 1.5, 65.0, 60.0 μg kg-1, respectively). These values did not exceed average concentration specified by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and did not reached the scientific opinions of CONTAM.

Pal R.,SZIE | Schill Judit M.,Nemzeti Elelmiszerbiztonsagi Hivatal | Ervin T.,Romer Labs
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2013

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolic products of Aspergillus fungi, first of all of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nominus. The first forms of the aflatoxins are the aflatoxin B1 and B2 that are terrible poisons, which belong to the group of ultimate carcinogens. Due to the delicate environmental requirements of Aspergillus fungi (high temperature, high humidity) up to recently the presence and significance of these fungi in countries of moderate climate had been excluded. In 2012 the Italian representative of the earlier established and effected Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) has reported the presence of aflatoxin M1 and M2 in bulk milk samples imported from Hungary. Following the alert number of Hungarian Dairy Enterprises launched investigations and found aflatoxin metabolites above the tolerable level (0.05 μg/kg) in the milk of about a dozen dairy farm. Scrutiny of the relevant literature has revealed the increasing presence of aflatoxin metabolites in bovine milk produced in Central Europe. It wasseen too, that Aspergillus infection of cereals, especially maize, has increased recently. This undesirable development has been unanimously attributed to the effects of global warming. The paper overviews the ecological demands of aspergilla, the metabolism of aflatoxins in ruminants, gives information about the growing concern of aflatoxicosis in humans and summarises the applicable analytical and preventive methods. The authors urge the acceleration of research for genetic resistance of cereals against microscopic fungi.

Havlicek V.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Kuzmany A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Cseh S.,SZIE | Brem G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Besenfelder U.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to compare the embryo production and quality carried out entirely in vitro or partly in vitro combined with short- vs long-term in vivo culture using the homologous cattle oviduct. The IVM oocytes were in vitro fertilized and cultured for 7 and 8 days (IVP-Group), or after IVF and 2-3 days of IVC, 4-8 cell stage embryos were endoscopically transferred into oviducts of synchronized heifers (In Vivo-Group) or IVM oocytes were co-incubated with spermatozoa for 3-4 h and transferred into the oviducts of synchronized heifers (GIFT-Group). Embryos of the In Vivo-Group and the GIFT-Group were recovered on day 7 from the oviducts and uterine horns. Embryos of all groups were either cryopreserved at day 7 (day 7 blastocysts) or cultured in vitro in CR1aa-medium supplemented with 5% ECS for further 24 h and cryopreserved (day 8 blastocysts). The total blastocyst yield found in the in vivo cultured groups was similar to the results of the IVP-Group. But the appearance of blastocysts was dependent on the duration of in vivo culture. The more time the embryos spent in the in vivo environment, the more blastocysts appeared at day 8. The quality of produced blastocysts assessed by cryo-survival was also correlated to the culture conditions; the in vivo cultured embryos showed higher cryo-tolerance. However, the duration of in vivo culture crucially influenced the cryo-tolerance of produced blastocysts. It is concluded that tubal access is a promising tool to provide a further basis for studying embryo sensitivity to environmental changes. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Thanks to the impact of vintage effect occurring in recent years the Fusarium contamination of wheat and consequently a high DON toxin concentration often cause problem. The DON toxin in terms of human and animal health is a serious food safety risk factor. Therefore, it is important to have methods during the wheat milling process, which reduce the level of toxin. The authors confirmed in earlier examinations, that using modern colour sorting machine the DON toxin content of wheat items can effectively be reduced. The question is, that how does the mycotoxin content of the resulting byproduct change, which is used primarily as animal feed. The authors presented an analysis of these relevant experimental data. The results show, that the toxin content of the by-product exceeds the starting wheat item's one. However, the result of the regression analysis shows that there is no correlation between the toxin contents of the starting raw material, the purified wheat and the by-product. This should be considered by the users when the resulting material is intended to utilize as feed ingredient.

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