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Budapest, Hungary

Havlicek V.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Kuzmany A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Cseh S.,SZIE | Brem G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Besenfelder U.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Reproduction in Domestic Animals

The objective of this study was to compare the embryo production and quality carried out entirely in vitro or partly in vitro combined with short- vs long-term in vivo culture using the homologous cattle oviduct. The IVM oocytes were in vitro fertilized and cultured for 7 and 8 days (IVP-Group), or after IVF and 2-3 days of IVC, 4-8 cell stage embryos were endoscopically transferred into oviducts of synchronized heifers (In Vivo-Group) or IVM oocytes were co-incubated with spermatozoa for 3-4 h and transferred into the oviducts of synchronized heifers (GIFT-Group). Embryos of the In Vivo-Group and the GIFT-Group were recovered on day 7 from the oviducts and uterine horns. Embryos of all groups were either cryopreserved at day 7 (day 7 blastocysts) or cultured in vitro in CR1aa-medium supplemented with 5% ECS for further 24 h and cryopreserved (day 8 blastocysts). The total blastocyst yield found in the in vivo cultured groups was similar to the results of the IVP-Group. But the appearance of blastocysts was dependent on the duration of in vivo culture. The more time the embryos spent in the in vivo environment, the more blastocysts appeared at day 8. The quality of produced blastocysts assessed by cryo-survival was also correlated to the culture conditions; the in vivo cultured embryos showed higher cryo-tolerance. However, the duration of in vivo culture crucially influenced the cryo-tolerance of produced blastocysts. It is concluded that tubal access is a promising tool to provide a further basis for studying embryo sensitivity to environmental changes. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Schwarz P.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Lukacova A.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Formicki G.,Pedagogical University of Cracow | Massanyi P.,Slovak University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja

Heavy metal toxicity is one of the major current environment health problems and is potentially dangerous because of bio-accumulation through the food chain, which can cause hazardous effects on human health. The toxic heavy metals of great concern are Cd, Pb and Hg which are usually associated with harmful effects in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of selected contaminants in cattle meat and milk and to compare the observed concentration limits with data from the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. Samples of milk were analysed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results obtained and expressed in mg.kg-1 showed that milk had in average tolerable concentration of As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni (13.0, 0.75, 4.5, 0.0625, 25.0, 31.25, μg kg-1, respectively) as well as meat (25.5, 2.55, 14.0, 1.5, 65.0, 60.0 μg kg-1, respectively). These values did not exceed average concentration specified by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and did not reached the scientific opinions of CONTAM. Source

Pal R.,SZIE | Schill Judit M.,Nemzeti Elelmiszerbiztonsagi Hivatal | Ervin T.,Romer Labs
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolic products of Aspergillus fungi, first of all of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nominus. The first forms of the aflatoxins are the aflatoxin B1 and B2 that are terrible poisons, which belong to the group of ultimate carcinogens. Due to the delicate environmental requirements of Aspergillus fungi (high temperature, high humidity) up to recently the presence and significance of these fungi in countries of moderate climate had been excluded. In 2012 the Italian representative of the earlier established and effected Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) has reported the presence of aflatoxin M1 and M2 in bulk milk samples imported from Hungary. Following the alert number of Hungarian Dairy Enterprises launched investigations and found aflatoxin metabolites above the tolerable level (0.05 μg/kg) in the milk of about a dozen dairy farm. Scrutiny of the relevant literature has revealed the increasing presence of aflatoxin metabolites in bovine milk produced in Central Europe. It wasseen too, that Aspergillus infection of cereals, especially maize, has increased recently. This undesirable development has been unanimously attributed to the effects of global warming. The paper overviews the ecological demands of aspergilla, the metabolism of aflatoxins in ruminants, gives information about the growing concern of aflatoxicosis in humans and summarises the applicable analytical and preventive methods. The authors urge the acceleration of research for genetic resistance of cereals against microscopic fungi. Source

Janos G.,SZIE | Peter P.,SZIE | Johanna B.,Talpas Allatorvosi Rendelo
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja

The authors review a case of subileus caused by sand particles passively swallowed during the feeding in a 5 years old female desert sand boa {Eryx miliaris). The snake was kept in a 30×45×30 cm terrarium heated with 40 W soil heater, the substrate was river sand. The snake was fed basically on alive and dead mice killed by CO. Several weeks before the examination the snake refused the food and stopped eating. An object composed of swallowed sand particles was detected by X-ray, endoscope and ultrasound examination. The sand was swallowed passively with the prey animals during the feeding and accumulated as thick pseudoconcretion before the cloaca. Circumscribed local inflammation was observed, caused by the partide. During the endoscopic examination the partiele that caused the subileus could be removed via the cloaca. With this case the authors suggest to use pit sand or soil as ground for sand boas, which do not cause ileus or subileus. Source

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