Li H.,Xiamen University |
Li H.,University of Pécs |
Nie J.C.,Beijing Normal University |
Li J.C.,Xiamen University |
And 2 more authors.
Carbon | Year: 2013
Ethanol has etching effect on the side wall of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Under proper treating temperature and employing ultrasonic treatment, graphene fractions might form and suspend in acetonitrile due to the ethanol induced breaking down of the ektexine of the MWCNTs. High resolution images by transmission electron microscopy validated these processes. Furthermore, due to the requirements of industrial applications, entropy driven selective adsorption was successfully tested for separation of the graphene layers from the remained MWCNTs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hippocampal "cholinergic interneurons" visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: Anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation
Yi F.,University of Montana |
Catudio-Garrett E.,University of Montana |
Gabriel R.,University of Pécs |
Gabriel R.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center |
And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus (HC) occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa) mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlap with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM) exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-Rosa mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations. © 2015 Yi, Catudio-Garrett, Gábriel, Wilhelm, Erdelyi, Szabo, Deisseroth and Lawrence.
Matisz G.,University of Pécs |
Matisz G.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center |
Kelterer A.-M.,University of Graz |
Fabian W.M.F.,University of Graz |
And 2 more authors.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2015
Density functional theory (B3LYP-D3, M06-2X) has been used to calculate the structures, interaction energies and vibrational frequencies of a set of 93 methanol-water clusters of different type (cubic, ring, spiro, lasso, bicyclic), size and composition. These interaction energies have been used within the framework of the Quantum Cluster Equilibrium Theory (QCE) to calculate cluster populations as well as thermodynamic properties of binary methanol-water mixtures spanning the whole range from pure water to pure methanol. The necessary parameters amf and bxv of the QCE model were obtained by fitting to experimental isobars of MeOH-H2O mixtures with different MeOH content. The cubic and spiro motifs dominate the distribution of methanol-water clusters in the mixtures with a maximum of mixed clusters at x(MeOH) = 0.365. Reasonable agreement with experimental data as well as earlier molecular dynamics simulations was found for excess enthalpies HE, entropies SE as well as Gibbs free energies of mixing GE. In contrast, heat capacities Cp and CEp showed only poor agreement with experimental data. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2015.
Wang Z.,China University of Mining and Technology |
Gao Q.,China University of Mining and Technology |
Pan C.,China University of Mining and Technology |
Zhao Y.,China University of Mining and Technology |
And 2 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2012
The thiosulfate-bromate reaction has been studied by high-performance liquid chromatography, monitoring the concentrations of thiosulfate and tetrathionate simultaneously. It is found that concentration-time curves of both species display a sigmoidal shape in a slightly acidic, well-buffered medium. Unlike the previously reported complex reaction systems involving bromate, this nonlinear dynamical behavior originates from neither proton nor bromine(III) autocatalysis under our experimental conditions. We demonstrated that sulfur(IV) species significantly accelerates the reaction; therefore, it acts as an autocatalyst. To the best of our knowledge, no reaction system has yet been reported among the pH-driven oxysulfur-oxyhalogen systems, where sulfur(IV) has such a remarkable role. On the basis of the simultaneous evaluation of [S 2O 3 2-] and [S 4O 6 2-] time series, an eight-step kinetic model is proposed to account for the experimental observations. The model employed here may serve as a solid starting point to extend it for other oxysulfur-oxyhalogen systems where such a seemingly general phenomenon may become observable. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Volgyi B.,New York University |
Volgyi B.,University of Pécs |
Volgyi B.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center |
Kovacs-oller T.,University of Pécs |
And 7 more authors.
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2013
Gap junctions connect cells in the bodies of all multicellular organisms, forming either homologous or heterologous (i.e. established between identical or different cell types, respectively) cell-to-cell contacts by utilizing identical (homotypic) or different (heterotypic) connexin protein subunits. Gap junctions in the nervous system serve electrical signaling between neurons, thus they are also called electrical synapses. Such electrical synapses are particularly abundant in the vertebrate retina where they are specialized to form links between neurons as well as glial cells. In this article, we summarize recent findings on retinal cell-to-cell coupling in different vertebrates and identify general features in the light of the evergrowing body of data. In particular, we describe and discuss tracer coupling patterns, connexin proteins, junctional conductances and modulatory processes. This multispecies comparison serves to point out that most features are remarkably conserved across the vertebrate classes, including (i) the cell types connected via electrical synapses; (ii) the connexin makeup and the conductance of each cell-to-cell contact; (iii) the probable function of each gap junction in retinal circuitry; (iv) the fact that gap junctions underlie both electrical and/or tracer coupling between glial cells. These pan-vertebrate features thus demonstrate that retinal gap junctions have changed little during the over 500 million years of vertebrate evolution. Therefore, the fundamental architecture of electrically coupled retinal circuits seems as old as the retina itself, indicating that gap junctions deeply incorporated in retinal wiring from the very beginning of the eye formation of vertebrates. In addition to hard wiring provided by fast synaptic transmitter-releasing neurons and soft wiring contributed by peptidergic, aminergic and purinergic systems, electrical coupling may serve as the 'skeleton' of lateral processing, enabling important functions such as signal averaging and synchronization. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Xu L.,University of Pécs |
Xu L.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center |
Cseko G.,University of Pécs |
Cseko G.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center |
And 4 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2012
The pentathionate-iodine reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically at T = 25.0 ± 0.1 °C and at an ionic strength of 0.5 M in both the absence and presence of an initially added iodide ion at the pH range of 3.95-5.15. It was found that the pH does not affect the rate of the reaction; however, the iodide ion produced by the reaction strongly inhibits the oxidation. Therefore, it acts as an autoinhibitor. The kinetic curves also support the fact that iodide inhibition cannot be explained by the formation of the unreactive triiodide ion, and S5O6I- along with the iodide ion has to be involved in the initiating rapid equilibrium being shifted far to the left. Further reactions of S5O6I -, including its hydrolysis and reaction with the iodide ion, lead to the overall stoichiometry represented by the following equation: S 5O62- + 10I2 + 14H2O → 5SO42- + 20I- + 28H+. A nine-step kinetic model with two fitted parameters is proposed and discussed, from which a rate equation has also been derived. A brief discussion about the general pathway of sulfur-chain breakage of polythionates supported by theoretical calculations has also been included. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Szabadfi K.,University of Pécs |
Szabo A.,University of Pécs |
Kiss P.,University of Pécs |
Reglodi D.,University of Pécs |
And 6 more authors.
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2014
Metabolic changes induced by diabetes lead to a multifactorial progressive disease of the retina with an extremely complex pathogenesis. One of the mechanisms of retinal cell death in diabetes is via apoptosis. Our previous results show that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) attenuates the morphological and neurochemical changes in a rat model of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of this protective effect. Retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were analyzed using apoptosis detection combined with immunolabeling. Western blot was used to measure levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways. Intraocular PACAP injection markedly attenuated diabetic retinal injury: increased levels of the anti-apoptotic p-Akt, p-ERK1, p-ERK2, PKC, Bcl-2, while decreased levels of the pro-apoptotic p-p38MAPK and activated caspases (8, 3, 12) were detected. The number of apoptotic cells increased in all nuclear layers of diabetic retinas, but significantly decreased after PACAP treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that the protective effects of PACAP are mediated, at least partly, by attenuating apoptosis, including also that of the dopaminergic amacrine cells. Inhibition of apoptosis is one of the PACAP-induced pathways with therapeutic potential in early experimental diabetic retinopathy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barcs B.,University of Pécs |
Kollar L.,University of Pécs |
Kollar L.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center |
Kegl T.,University of Pécs |
Kegl T.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center
Organometallics | Year: 2012
The mechanism of diazo activation as well as the carbonylation of the resulting carbene complexes has been investigated by means of DFT calculations at the PBE0/TZVP level of theory. The free energy profile of all elementary steps of the reaction, i.e., diazo coordination, dinitrogen extrusion, carbene-CO coupling, CO coordination, and ketene elimination, have been elucidated for diazomethane and ethyl diazoacetate as substrates and for Ni(CO)3, Ni(CO)2(PH3), and Ni(dtbpe)(CO) (dtbpe = 1,2-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)ethane) as precursors. The reaction rate is determined by the formation of the coordinatively unsaturated precursor followed by the dinitrogen extrusion, regardless of the initial diazo compound and the catalyst precursor. For the homoleptic precursor Ni(CO)3 the free energy of activation for diazomethane and ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) is 16.9 and 22.4 kcal/mol, respectively. The replacement of one carbonyl ligand with PH 3 results in a decrease in the activation barrier, modifying the energies to 15.7 and 20.5 kcal/mol, respectively. The activation free energy of the diazo extrusion step promoted by Ni(dtbpe)(CO) is 24.3 kcal/mol for diazomethane and 28.1 kcal/mol for EDA. The formation of carbene complexes is slightly endergonic starting from the homoleptic precursor and exergonic for the phosphine-substituted complex. The carbene-CO coupling, resulting in coordinatively unsaturated ketene complexes, is a fast and highly exergonic process with reaction free energies between -32.3 and -42.1 kcal/mol, depending on the substituents. Under a carbon monoxide atmosphere the ketene complexes may uptake one CO, forming coordinatively saturated ketene complexes via low barriers in exergonic reactions. The final step, i.e., the dissociation of ketene or ethoxycarbonylketene from the saturated ketene complex, regenerates the corresponding nickel-carbonyl precursor. The azine formation side reaction for the simplest case between Ni(CO)3 and diazomethane has been also examined and found to be highly exergonic; however, the large free energy barrier prevents the formation of benzophenone-azine when CO is also present. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Kunsagi-Mate S.,University of Pécs |
Kunsagi-Mate S.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center |
Iwata K.,Gakushuin University
Journal of Solution Chemistry | Year: 2013
The dynamic motions of solvent molecules in the solvation shell of phenols in binary water-ethanol solutions have been examined experimentally by measuring the solvent relaxation times using phase-fluorometry. The results show that the mono-exponential character of the solvent relaxation changes to bi-exponential just after the ethanol content of the bulk solution exceeds a critical value. This value depends on the electron density of the aromatic rings of the phenolic molecules. Above the critical values much higher ethanol content is observed in the solvation shell compared to the bulk solutions. This observation is applicable in wide scale of chemical processes in condensed phase and indicates that further research is needed towards development of a picture at the atomic scale. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Koszegi T.,University of Pécs |
Koszegi T.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center |
Poor M.,University of Pécs
Toxins | Year: 2016
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely-spread mycotoxin all over the world causing major health risks. The focus of the present review is on the molecular and cellular interactions of OTA. In order to get better insight into the mechanism of its toxicity and on the several attempts made for prevention or attenuation of its toxic action, a detailed description is given on chemistry and toxicokinetics of this mycotoxin. The mode of action of OTA is not clearly understood yet, and seems to be very complex. Inhibition of protein synthesis and energy production, induction of oxidative stress, DNA adduct formation, as well as apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle arrest are possibly involved in its toxic action. Since OTA binds very strongly to human and animal albumin, a major emphasis is done regarding OTA-albumin interaction. Displacement of OTA from albumin by drugs and by natural flavonoids are discussed in detail, hypothesizing their potentially beneficial effect in order to prevent or attenuate the OTA-induced toxic consequences. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.