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Kupi T.,University of Pecs | Grof P.,Semmelweis University | Nyitrai M.,University of Pecs | Nyitrai M.,Szentagothai Research Center | And 2 more authors.
European Biophysics Journal | Year: 2013

Formins are highly conserved proteins that are essential in the formation and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. The formin homology 2 (FH2) domain is responsible for actin binding and acts as an important nucleating factor in eukaryotic cells. In this work EPR and DSC were used to investigate the properties of the mDia1-FH2 formin fragment and its interaction with actin. MDia1-FH2 was labeled with a maleimide spin probe (MSL). EPR results suggested that the MSL was attached to a single SH group in the FH2. In DSC and temperature-dependent EPR experiments we observed that mDia1-FH2 has a flexible structure and observed a major temperature-induced conformational change at 41 C. The results also confirmed the previous observation obtained by fluorescence methods that formin binding can destabilize the structure of actin filaments. In the EPR experiments the intermolecular connection between the monomers of formin dimers proved to be flexible. Considering the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular roles of formins this internal flexibility of the dimers is probably important for manifestation of their biological functions. © 2013 The Author(s). Source


Futo K.,University of Pecs | Bodis E.,University of Pecs | Machesky L.M.,Beatson Institute for Cancer Research | Nyitrai M.,University of Pecs | And 3 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2013

The 53-kDa insulin receptor substrate protein (IRSp53) organizes the actin cytoskeleton in response to stimulation of small GTPases, promoting the formation of cell protrusions such as filopodia and lamellipodia. IMD is the N-terminal 250 amino acid domain (IRSp53/MIM Homology Domain) of IRSp53 (also called I-BAR), which can bind to negatively charged lipid molecules. Overexpression of IMD induces filopodia formation in cells and purified IMD assembles finger-like protrusions in reconstituted lipid membranes. IMD was shown by several groups to bundle actin filaments, but other groups showed that it also binds to membranes. IMD binds to negatively charged lipid molecules with preference to clusters of PI(4,5)P2. Here, we performed a range of different in vitro fluorescence experiments to determine the binding properties of the IMD to phospholipids. We used different constructs of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVETs), containing neutral or negatively charged phospholipids. We found that IMD has a stronger binding interaction with negatively charged PI(4,5)P2 or PS lipids than PS/PC or neutral PC lipids. The equilibrium dissociation constant for the IMD-lipid interaction falls into the 78-170 μM range for all the lipids tested. The solvent accessibility of the fluorescence labels on the IMD during its binding to lipids is also reduced as the lipids become more negatively charged. Actin affects the IMD-lipid interaction, depending on its polymerization state. Monomeric actin partially disrupts the binding, while filamentous actin can further stabilize the IMD-lipid interaction. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ur G.,University of Pecs | Kalai T.,University of Pecs | Kalai T.,Szentagothai Research Center | Hideg K.,University of Pecs
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2016

Lithiation of an α,β-unsaturated pyrroline nitroxide ester at the β-carbon with LTMP followed by treatment with electrophiles led to a new series of 3,4-disubstituted pyrroline nitroxides, which could be used as valuable paramagnetic building blocks. The new compounds were tested in Sonogashira and Stille cross coupling reactions, which offered methyl 1-oxyl-4-substituted-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-carboxylate radicals for new C-C bond formation in poor to moderate yields. The reaction of an α,β-unsaturated pyrroline nitroxide ester with methyl chloroformate generated diester 2b; the partial hydrolysis product of this reaction was shown to be a key compound for the synthesis of paramagnetic uracil derivative 10. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Kardos R.,University of Pecs | Kardos R.,Szentagothai Research Center | Nevalainen E.,University of Helsinki | Nyitrai M.,University of Pecs | And 4 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2013

The main goal of the work was to uncover the dynamical changes in actin induced by the binding of cofilin and profilin. The change in the structure and flexibility of the small domain and its function in the thermodynamic stability of the actin monomer were examined with fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The structure around the C-terminus of actin is slightly affected by the presence of cofilin and profilin. Temperature dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements indicated that both actin binding proteins decreased the flexibility of the protein matrix between the subdomains 1 and 2. Time resolved anisotropy decay measurements supported the idea that cofilin and profilin changed similarly the dynamics around the fluorescently labeled Cys-374 and Lys-61 residues in subdomains 1 and 2, respectively. DSC experiments indicated that the thermodynamic stability of actin increased by cofilin and decreased in the presence of profilin. Based on the information obtained it is possible to conclude that while the small domain of actin acts uniformly in the presence of cofilin and profilin the overall stability of actin changes differently in the presence of the studied actin binding proteins. The results support the idea that the small domain of actin behaves as a rigid unit during the opening and closing of the nucleotide binding pocket in the presence of profilin and cofilin as well. The structural arrangement of the nucleotide binding cleft mainly influences the global stability of actin while the dynamics of the different segments can change autonomously. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Radnai B.,University of Pecs | Antus C.,University of Pecs | Racz B.,University of Pecs | Engelmann P.,University of Pecs | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: 2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-E-4-arylidene-3-isochromanone (IK11) was previously described to induce apoptotic death of A431 tumor cells. In this report, we investigated the molecular action of IK11 in the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line to increase our knowledge of the role of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP), protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the survival and death of tumor cells and to highlight the possible role of PARP-inhibitors in co-treatments with different cytotoxic agents in cancer therapy.Results: We found that sublethal concentrations of IK11 prevented proliferation, migration and entry of the cells into their G2 phase. At higher concentrations, IK11 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2), and substantial loss of HepG2 cells. ROS production appeared marginal in mediating the cytotoxicity of IK11 since N-acetyl cysteine was unable to prevent it. However, the PARP inhibitor PJ34, although not a ROS scavenger, strongly inhibited both IK11-induced ROS production and cell death. JNK2 activation seemed to be a major mediator of the effect of IK11 since inhibition of JNK resulted in a substantial cytoprotection while inhibitors of the other kinases failed to do so. Inhibition of Akt slightly diminished the effect of IK11, while the JNK and Akt inhibitor and ROS scavenger trans-resveratrol completely protected against it.Conclusions: These results indicate significant involvement of PARP, a marginal role of ROS and a pro-apoptotic role of Akt in this system, and raise attention to a novel mechanism that should be considered when cancer therapy is augmented with PARP-inhibition, namely the cytoprotection by inhibition of JNK2. © 2012 Radnai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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