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Kato K.,Japan Institute for Molecular Science | Kato K.,Nagoya City University | Kato K.,Ochanomizu University | Kato K.,GLYENCE Co. | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

A paper published in Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy informs about stable-isotope-assisted NMR approaches to glycoproteins using immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model system. The paper describes about the application of the stable-isotope-assisted NMR approach to structural analyses of glycoprotein glycans using IgG as a model system. IgG is described as a multi-domain glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 150 kDa, functioning as the major class of antibodies in the immune system. Three-dimensional structures have been determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses and are available for intact IgG molecules and for a proteolytic fragment Fc. Two methods are employed for stable-isotope-labeling of IgG-Fc glycans. These two methods include metabolic labeling through biosynthetic pathways of production vehicles and in vitro enzymatic attachment of isotopically labeled monosaccharide(s) onto the non-reducing end of the Fc glycans. Source

Kizuka Y.,Systems Glycobiology Research Group | Kitazume S.,Systems Glycobiology Research Group | Yoshida M.,RIKEN | Taniguchi N.,Systems Glycobiology Research Group | Taniguchi N.,Osaka University
Journal of Biological Chemistry

It is well known that biosynthesis of glycans takes place in organ- and tissue-specific manners and glycan expression is controlled by various factors including glycosyltransferases. The expression mechanism of glycosyltransferases, however, is poorly understood. Here we investigated the expression mechanism of a brain-specific glycosyltransferase, GnT-IX (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IX, also designated as GnT-Vb), which synthesizes branched O-mannose glycan. Using an epigenetic approach, we revealed that the genomic region around the transcriptional start site of the GnT-IX gene was highly associated with active chromatin histone marks in a neural cell-specific manner, indicating that brain-specific GnT-IX expression is under control of an epigenetic "histone code." By EMSA and ChIP analyses we identified two regulatory proteins, NeuroD1 and CTCF that bind to and activate the GnT-IX promoter. We also revealed that GnT-IX expression was suppressed in CTCFand NeuroD1-depleted cells, indicating that a NeuroD1- and CTCF-dependent epigenetic mechanism governs brain-specific GnT-IX expression. Several other neural glycosyltransferase genes are also found to be regulated by epigenetic histone modifications. This is the first report demonstrating a molecular mechanism at the chromatin level underlying tissue-specific glycan expression. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Harada Y.,Systems Glycobiology Research Group | Harada Y.,Kagoshima University | Masahara-Negishi Y.,Systems Glycobiology Research Group | Suzuki T.,Systems Glycobiology Research Group

During asparagine (N)-linked protein glycosylation, eukaryotic cells generate considerable amounts of free oligosaccharides (fOSs) in the cytosol. It is generally assumed that such fOSs are produced by the deglycosylation of misfolded N-glycoproteins that are destined for proteasomal degradation or as the result of the degradation of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides (DLOs), which serve as glycan donor substrates in N-glycosylation reactions. The findings reported herein show that the majority of cytosolic fOSs are generated by a peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) and an endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase)-independent pathway in mammalian cells. The ablation of the cytosolic deglycosylating enzymes, PNGase and ENGase, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts had little effect on the amount of cytosolic fOSs generated. Quantitative analyses of fOSs using digitonin-permeabilized cells revealed that they are generated by the degradation of fully assembled Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-pyrophosphate-dolichol (PP-Dol) in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Because the degradation of Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol is greatly inhibited in the presence of an N-glycosylation acceptor peptide that is recognized by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), the OST-mediated hydrolysis of DLO is the most likely mechanism responsible for the production of a large fraction of the cytosolic fOSs. © 2015 The Author. Source

Yamaguchi Y.,Nagoya City University | Yamaguchi Y.,Systems Glycobiology Research Group | Masuda M.,Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry | Masuda M.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology

α-Synuclein is a major component of filamentous inclusions that are histological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathies. Previous analyses have revealed that several polyphenols inhibit α-synuclein assembly with low micromolar IC50 values, and that SDS-stable, noncytotoxic soluble α-synuclein oligomers are formed in their presence. Structural elucidation of inhibitor-bound α-synuclein oligomers is obviously required for the better understanding of the inhibitory mechanism. In order to characterize inhibitor-bound α-synucleins in detail, we have prepared α-synuclein dimers in the presence of polyphenol inhibitors, exifone, gossypetin, and dopamine, and purified the products. Peptide mapping and mass spectrometric analysis revealed that exifone-treated α-synuclein monomer and dimer were oxidized at all four methionine residues of α-synuclein. Immunoblot analysis and redox-cycling staining of endoproteinase Asp-N-digested products showed that the N-terminal region (1-60) is involved in the dimerization and exifone binding of α-synuclein. Ultra-high-field NMR analysis of inhibitor-bound α-synuclein dimers showed that the signals derived from the N-terminal region of α-synuclein exhibited line broadening, confirming that the N-terminal region is involved in inhibitor-induced dimerization. The C-terminal portion still predominantly exhibited the random-coil character observed in monomeric α-synuclein. We propose that the N-terminal region of α-synuclein plays a key role in the formation of α-synuclein assemblies. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ninagawa S.,Kyoto University | Ninagawa S.,Japan Institute for Molecular Science | Ninagawa S.,Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience | Okada T.,Kyoto University | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology

Glycoproteins and non-glycoproteins possessing unfolded/misfolded parts in their luminal regions are cleared from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by ER-associated degradation (ERAD)-L with distinct mechanisms. Two-step mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 is crucial in the ERAD-L of glycoproteins. We recently showed that this process is initiated by EDEM2 and completed by EDEM3/EDEM1. Here, we constructed chicken and human cells simultaneously deficient in EDEM1/2/3 and analyzed the fates of four ERAD-L substrates containing three potential N-glycosylation sites. We found that native but unstable or somewhat unfolded glycoproteins, such as ATF6α, ATF6α(C), CD3-δ-ΔTM, and EMC1, were stabilized in EDEM1/2/3 triple knockout cells. In marked contrast, degradation of severely misfolded glycoproteins, such as null Hong Kong (NHK) and deletion or insertion mutants of ATF6α(C), CD3-δ-ΔTM, and EMC1, was delayed only at early chase periods, but they were eventually degraded as in wild-type cells. Thus, higher eukaryotes are able to extract severely misfolded glycoproteins from glycoprotein ERAD and target them to the non-glycoprotein ERAD pathway to maintain the homeostasis of the ER. © 2015 Ninagawa et al. Source

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