Miniaturization of satellite remote sensing promises lower costs, and SeaHawk is a prime example, offering global coastal ocean color imagery comparable to previous larger and more expensive systems. The National Research Council1 recently established the need to sustain and advance satellite ocean color research. Space observations have transformed biological oceanography, advancing knowledge of carbon and nitrogen cycling, showing how the ocean's biological processes influence climate, and allowing assessment of changes in primary production (the basis of the marine food chain). Continuous ocean color observation is also essential for monitoring the health of the marine ecosystem and its ability to sustain fisheries. Interrupting the ocean color record would hamper the work of climate scientists, fisheries and coastal resource managers, and other users ranging from the military to oil spill responders. Earth observing (EO) satellite missions have typically required large spacecraft with multiple payloads, resulting in high costs. For example, the 1997 SeaStar satellite (known later as OrbView-1) with its Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS)2, 3 cost more than $100M,4 including the sensor, spacecraft, and launch costs. A constellation of EO CubeSats could change this, providing daily or finer temporal resolution and better spatial resolution for dramatically reduced cost. CubeSats are small, inexpensive satellites built on a concept created by Stanford University's Space Systems Development Laboratory and California Polytechnic State University intended to provide less-expensive access to space.5, 6 SeaHawk is a CubeSat fitted with a low-cost, miniature ocean color sensor known as HawkEye that will allow fine-spatial-resolution observations of the ocean. SeaHawk's low cost, mass, and volume, and short development time should enable more similar EO missions in the future. SeaHawk (see Figure 1) will be 200 times smaller (10×10×30 cm3 vs. 50×50×200 cm3) and 100 times lighter (∼3kg vs. 309kg) than OrbView-1, with eight times finer resolution (120m vs. 1km) and similar signal-to-noise ratio. Two SeaHawk CubeSats7–9 are being built over a two-year period (2015–2017) to be launched in 2018, for a cost of $1.7M. SeaHawk has completed its Critical Design Review. There is no technology development involved because commercial subsystems are used throughout. SeaHawk is a 3U CubeSat composed of a 2U standard bus produced by Clyde Space of Glasgow, Scotland, and a 1U HawkEye multispectral ocean color sensor. HawkEye uses eight spectral bands with ground sample distance of about 120m from a nominal 540km polar orbit. HawkEye's specifications are summarized in Table 1. The red rectangle in Figure 2 shows HawkEye's nominal field of view. The system engineering approach driving SeaHawk and HawkEye is based on fitting HawkEye within a 10cm cube with SeaWiFS radiometry at 120m nadir resolution from an orbit altitude of 540km over a 350km swath. HawkEye's 120m resolution dramatically improves imaging capabilities compared to the 1km resolution of OrbView-1's SeaWiFS. Table 1.HawkEye offers eight Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) spectral bands with 140μrad instantaneous field of view per band. SNR: Signal-to-noise ratio. Ltyp: Typical radiance level. Imagery from SeaHawk's HawkEye sensor will improve the ability to monitor fjords, estuaries, coral reefs, and other near-shore environments where anthropogenic stresses are often most acute and where there are considerable security and commercial interests. HawkEye is in ground testing at Cloudland Instruments, with anticipated completion in 2017 for spacecraft integration and launch in early 2018. The SeaHawk program, managed by John Morrison of the University of North Carolina-Wilmington (UNC-W), is overseen by members of the former SeaWiFS science team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. UNC-W is preparing for SeaHawk by developing algorithms to take advantage of the improved 120m spatial resolution compared to the SeaWiFS 1km spatial resolution.
Ueda R.,Systems Development Laboratory |
Sato Y.,Systems Development Laboratory |
Mori M.,Systems Development Laboratory |
Nakamura K.,Institute of Electronics |
Sagawa N.,Hitachi Ltd.
Hitachi Review | Year: 2010
OVERVIEW: Hitachi is working on research and development aimed at implementing KaaS that extract and present valuable information (knowledge) from the large volumes of data generated by social infrastructure such as industry, transport, and electricity supply. Two issues associated with realizing this goal are getting access to extensive computing capacity and ensuring the privacy of the data. To solve these problems, Hitachi is developing an architecture that can run various different analysis algorithms on large distributed processing platforms and, in addition to the ability to increase capacity simply by adding computing resources, has also developed privacy protection systems that incorporate two features: data access control for multiple items with multiple IDs and k-anonymization. The resulting technology is currently being used for applications such as maintenance and diagnostic services and location-aware services where it is the subject of ongoing evaluation and improvement. The aim for the future is to provide knowledge platforms that merge information in a way that transcends boundaries between industries by building systems with a high level of computing performance able to analyze data from across different industries. Source
Saito T.,Japan Institute of Electrical Engineers |
Hirashima Y.,Systems Development Laboratory |
Yamamura H.,Enterprise Systems |
Yoshida T.,Air Conditioning System Group
Hitachi Review | Year: 2010
OVERVIEW: Data centers house IT equipment centrally and run diverse IT services that form part of our social infrastructure, and factors such as their growing size and the increasing density of installed IT equipment have made the associated increase in power consumption a matter of concern around the world. It is believed that the solution to this problem can be found not only in reducing the power consumption of individual equipment but also through the coordinated control of all the equipment in the data center. Hitachi develops a range of different equipment and systems for data centers and in 2007 embarked on an "Environmentally Conscious Data Center Project" that draws on the overall capabilities of the Hitachi Group and an "IT Power-saving Plan" for reducing the power consumption of IT equipment. The major outcomes of this work to date have included the commercialization of a power supply unit for IT equipment and a spot cooling system that features natural circulation of the refrigerant. Future initiatives will include technology for collaborative control of IT and facilities which fits in with the overall aim of implementing center-wide control. Source