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Justo A.,Clark University | Caballero A.,Calle AndalucIa | Munoz G.,Avenida Valvanera A | Minnis A.M.,Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory | Malysheva E.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Mycologia | Year: 2011

The status of the taxa morphologically similar to Pluteus eugraptus (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) was investigated with morphological and molecular (ITS region) characters. This group of species belongs in Pluteus sect. Celluloderma based on morphological and molecular characters. Two species, Pluteus multiformis, from Spain and Pluteus eludens from Madeira, Portugal, Russia and USA, are described as new. Both species share pigmented cheilocystidia and a pileipellis composed of both clavate-spheropedunculate and elongated elements with P. eugraptus, but they can be separated based on the characteristics of the cystidia and pileipellis. Pluteus multiformis is characterized by the scarce pleurocystidia, clavate cheilocystidia and caulocystidia and highly polymorphic elements of the pileipellis. Pluteus eludens is characterized mainly by utriform pleurocystidia. Pluteus eugraptus is known only with certainty from the type collection (Sri Lanka), which has been re-examined here, and it is characterized by narrowly lageniform pleurocystidia. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS region sequence data supported the separation of P. multiformis, P. eludens and an additional collection from Japan that likely represents the true P. eugraptus. © 2011 by The Mycological Society of America. Source


Minnis A.M.,Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory | McTaggart A.R.,Louisiana State University | Rossman A.Y.,Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory | Aime M.C.,Louisiana State University
Mycologia | Year: 2012

Mayapple rust is a common, disfiguring disease that is widespread in temperate eastern North America wherever the host, Podophyllum peltatum, occurs. Puccinia podophylli, the etiological agent of this rust, has been shown to be distantly related to both Puccinia and Uromyces as exemplified by their types. A systematic study was made to determine the generic classification of P. podophylli. Phylogenetic analyses of two rDNA loci from multiple specimens support the recognition of this taxon as a separate genus of Pucciniaceae. Based on historical literature and type material, P. podophylli was found to represent the type of the forgotten genus Allodus and it is correctly named Allodus podophylli. A neotype is designated for Puccinia podophylli Schwein. (; Allodus podophylli) and a lectotype is designated for Aecidium podophylli. © 2012 by The Mycological Society of America. Source


Rosmana A.,Hasanuddin University | Samuels G.J.,Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory | Ismaiel A.,Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory | Ibrahim E.S.,Hasanuddin University | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Endophytic strains of Trichoderma species can be used as an alternative to chemicals to control vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease of cacao. Of 21 Trichoderma isolated from Theobroma cacao (cacao) in Indonesia, 19 were identified as Trichoderma asperellum. Four isolates of this species (ART-4, ART-5, ART-6 and ART-8) were reintroduced into young cocoa seedlings by root inoculation and after 4 weeks all were recovered from roots and stems, while ART-4 and ART-5 were recovered from leaves as well. Spraying seedlings pre-inoculated with T. asperellum ART-4, ART-5 and ART-6 with mycelium of the VSD pathogen Ceratobasidium theobromae resulted in no apparent VSD symptoms on the leaves. Those seedlings pre-inoculated with ART-8 showed 8.9 % incidence of VSD symptoms on the leaves when compared to a 20.4 % incidence of VSD on positive control leaves, 12 weeks after inoculation. The same isolates were also reintroduced into 3-month-old cocoa seedlings via the connecting site following shoot grafting, and after 12 weeks all isolates were recovered from stem and leaves. Seedlings grafted with buds infected by VSD and treated by ART-4 showed no VSD symptoms on their leaves 12 weeks after grafting and inoculation. However, those treated with ART-5, ART-6 and ART-8 showed 33.3 %, 50.0 % and 56.0 % incidence of VSD symptoms on their leaves, respectively, compared to an 88.9 % incidence of VSD on positive control leaves. Therefore, the study results demonstrates for the first time the potential of T. asperellum isolates to control VSD disease on cacao. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia. Source


Druzhinina I.S.,Vienna University of Technology | Komon-Zelazowska M.,Vienna University of Technology | Ismaiel A.,Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory | Jaklitsch W.,University of Vienna | And 4 more authors.
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2012

The phylogenetically most derived group of the genus Trichoderma - section Longibrachiatum, includes some of the most intensively studied species, such as the industrial cellulase producer T. reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina), or the facultative opportunistic human pathogens T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis. At the same time, the phylogeny of this clade is only poorly understood. Here we used a collection of 112 strains representing all currently recognized species and isolates that were tentatively identified as members of the group, to analyze species diversity and molecular evolution. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on several unlinked loci in individual and concatenated datasets confirmed 13 previously described species and 3 previously recognized phylogenetic species all of which were not yet described formally. When the genealogical concordance criterion, the K/θ method and comparison of frequencies of pairwise nucleotide differences were applied to the data sample, 10 additional new phylogenetic species were recognized, seven of which consisted only of a single lineage. Our analysis thus identifies 26 putative species in section Longibrachiatum, what doubles the currently estimated taxonomic diversity of the group, and illustrates the power of combining genealogical concordance and population genetic analysis for dissecting species in a recently diverged group of fungal species. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Kepler R.M.,Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory | Ugine T.A.,Cornell University | Maul J.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cavigelli M.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Rehner S.A.,Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2015

Fungi in the genus Metarhizium are insect pathogens able to function in other niches, including soil and plant rhizosphere habitats. In agroecosystems, cropping and tillage practices influence soil fungal communities with unknown effects on the distribution of Metarhizium, whose presence can reduce populations of crop pests. We report results from a selective media survey of Metarhizium in soils sampled from a long-term experimental farming project in the mid-Atlantic region. Field plots under soybean cultivation produced higher numbers of Metarhizium colony-forming units (cfu) than corn or alfalfa. Plots managed organically and via chisel-till harboured higher numbers of Metarhizium cfu than no-till plots. Sequence typing of Metarhizium isolates revealed four species, with M.robertsii and M.brunneum predominating. The M.brunneum population was essentially fixed for a single clone as determined by multilocus microsatellite genotyping. In contrast, M.robertsii was found to contain significant diversity, with the majority of isolates distributed between two principal clades. Evidence for recombination was observed only in the most abundant clade. These findings illuminate multiple levels of Metarhizium diversity that can be used to inform strategies by which soil Metarhizium populations may be manipulated to exert downward pressure on pest insects and promote plant health. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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