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Nouzilly, France
Nouzilly, France
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Dupont-Nivet M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Karahan-Nomm B.,Ege University | Vergnet A.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Merdy O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

Two hundred fifty three full-sib families from 33 males and 23 females of European seabass were produced in a partly factorial mating design. All fish were reared in the same tank for 14. months until reaching mean weight of 35. g, then 7000 of them were individually tagged and weighed, and dispatched to four farms in different locations (France, Israel, Italy and Portugal) representing a wide variety of environmental conditions. Around mean weight of 400. g, 1177 to 1667 fish at each site were weighed. Daily growth coefficient (DGC) was calculated. Pedigrees were successfully redrawn for 99.2% of fish using microsatellite markers. Genetic correlations between sites were high for body weight (>0.80 in all cases but one, i.e., five cases over six), but only moderate for DGC (0.21-0.61), with one exception. This indicates significant G × E interactions for growth rate, which were not revealed when studying body weight due to shared common environment of the fish prior to separation to the different rearing environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Collewet G.,IRSTEA | Collewet G.,European University of Brittany | Bugeon J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Idier J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The potentiality of MRI to quantify fat content in flesh and subcutaneous fat in fish cutlets was investigated. Low measurement time was aimed at in a view to handling large number of samples needed in selective breeding programs for example. Results on fresh and frozen-thawed cutlets were compared to assess this way of conservation. As MRI generates unwanted spatial variations of the signal, a correction method was developed enabling the measurement on several cutlets simultaneously in less than 3 min per sample. For subcutaneous fat, the results were compared with vision measurements. High correlations between both techniques were found (R2 = 0.77 and 0.87 for the ventral and dorsal part). Fat in flesh was validated vs NMR measurements. No statistical difference was found between fresh and frozen-thawed cutlets. RMSE was respectively 0.8% and 0.89%. These results confirmed the potentiality of MRI for fat measurement in fish particularly for a large number of samples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


de Verdal H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Narcy A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bastianelli D.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Chapuis H.,SYSAAF | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: Feed costs represent about 70% of the costs of raising broilers. The main way to decrease these costs is to improve feed efficiency by modification of diet formulation, but one other possibility would be to use genetic selection. Understanding the genetic architecture of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) and the impact of the selection criterion on the GIT would be of particular interest. We therefore studied the genetic parameters of AMEn (Apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen balance), feed efficiency, and GIT traits in chickens.Genetic parameters were estimated for 630 broiler chickens of the eighth generation of a divergent selection experiment on AMEn. Birds were reared until 23 d of age and fed a wheat-based diet. The traits measured were body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), AMEn, weights of crop, liver, gizzard and proventriculus, and weight, length and density of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.Results: The heritability estimates of BW, FCR and AMEn were moderate. The heritability estimates were higher for the GIT characteristics except for the weights of the proventriculus and liver. Gizzard weight was negatively correlated with density (weight to length ratio) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Proventriculus and gizzard weights were more strongly correlated with AMEn than with FCR, which was not the case for intestine weight and density.Conclusions: GIT traits were largely dependent on genetics and that selecting on AMEn or FCR would modify them. Phenotypic observations carried out in the divergent lines selected on AMEn were consistent with estimated genetic correlations between AMEn and GIT traits. © 2011 de Verdal et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Suquet M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Le Mercier A.,IUEM | Rimond F.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Mingant C.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 2 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

Parameters used to assess the survival of larvae after cryopreservation generally misestimate the damages that prevent larval development. The objectives of the present study were to 1) define the reliability of the survival rate, assessed at 2 and 7 days post fertilization, to estimate Pacific oyster larval quality after thawing, and 2) select complementary tools allowing an early and reliable estimation of their quality. Oyster larvae were reared for 25 h after fertilization at 19 °C and cryopreserved at early D-stage. Then, thawed larvae were incubated in 2-L beakers. At 2 days post fertilization, the survival rate of thawed Pacific oyster larvae was lower than that of fresh larvae for only one experiment (Experiment 3) among the four identical experiments carried out in this work (Experiments 1-4). By contrast, the survival of thawed larvae, as assessed 7 days after fertilization, was lower than that of fresh larvae for the four experiments. These results confirm that the quality of thawed larvae is lower than that of fresh larvae and that the survival rate, estimated 2 days post fertilization, is not adapted to a reliable estimation of the subsequent development ability of thawed larvae. Then, complementary parameters were tested at 2 days: the movement characteristics (Experiments 1 and 2) and the morphologic features (Experiments 3 and 4) of thawed larvae. Compared to values observed on fresh larvae, the percentage of thawed motile larvae was different for only one experiment (Experiment 2) of the two. Compared to control, a reduced Average Path Velocity (VAP) of larvae (determined at the D-larval stage using a CASA-Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis-system) was observed after thawing for both experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), suggesting the ability of larval movement velocity to assess the decrease of the quality of thawed oyster larvae. Using an ASMA (Automated Sperm Morphology Analysis) device, a lower area of thawed larvae was observed, compared to control and for the two experiments (Experiments 3 and 4). By contrast, the Crofton perimeter of thawed larvae was lower than that of control larvae for only one experiment (Experiment 3) and no significant difference of circularity between fresh and thawed larvae was recorded for Experiments 3 and 4. In conclusion, changes in the movement velocity (assessed by CASA) and in the area (measured by ASMA) of D-larvae allow an early and reliable estimation of the quality of thawed Pacific oyster larvae. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Chapuis H.,SYSAAF | Pincent C.,Choice Genetics France | Colleau J.J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2016

Summary: Poultry breeding schemes permanently face the need to control the evolution of coancestry and some critical traits, while selecting for a main breeding objective. The main aims of this article are first to present an efficient selection algorithm adapted to this situation and then to measure how the severity of constraints impacted on the degree of loss for the main trait, compared to BLUP selection on the main trait, without any constraint. Broiler dam and sire line schemes were mimicked by simulation over 10 generations and selection was carried out on the main trait under constraints for coancestry and for another trait, antagonistic with the main trait. The selection algorithm was a special simulated annealing (adaptative simulated annealing (ASA)). It was found to be rapid and able to meet constraints very accurately. A constraint on the second trait was found to induce an impact similar to or even greater than the impact of the constraint on coancestry. The family structure of selected poultry populations made it easy to control the evolution of coancestry at a reasonable cost but was not as useful for reducing the cost of controlling evolution of the antagonistic traits. Multiple constraints impacted almost additively on the genetic gain for the main trait. Adding constraints for several traits would therefore be justified in real life breeding schemes, possibly after evaluating their impact through simulated annealing. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Karahan B.,Ege University | Chatain B.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Chavanne H.,Panittica Pugliese | Vergnet A.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2013

Skeletal deformities are important traits for aquaculture as they induce slow growing and low market value. We studied their genetic determinism and their interactions with the environment at the ongrowing stage in 5839 European sea bass from a partial factorial mating of 33 sires and 23 dams, reared in four sites. All families were mixed, and fish were first reared in one site (site B) until 35 g mean weight, then distributed to the four sites. A posteriori reconstruction of pedigree with microsatellites was used. Deformities were scored internally at slaughtering, and externally from photographs. Site B, where all fish were initially stocked until 35 g and exposed to forced swimming because of fast water current showed the highest rate of deformities with 83% and 65% from internal and external scoring respectively. Heritability on the underlying scale was h2 = 0.25 ± 0.03 across all sites, and varied little between sites, while genetic correlations of deformities between sites were always high (>0.85). Genetic correlations between deformities and daily growth coefficient were variable between sites(rA = 0.50 ± 0.09, 0.43 ± 0.10, 0.32 ± 0.10, 0.18 ± 0.10 for sites A, B, C, D respectively) and were positively linked with the average growth rate in each site. These results pointed out that there could be a relation between growth rate and the evolution of deformities at the grow-out stage. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Suquet M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Labbe C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Brizard R.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Donval A.,IUEM | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

Changes in sperm features during the movement phase are especially interesting to study in external fertilization species whose sperm duration movement is long because this implies a significant adaptation of moving cells to the external medium. This study describes the changes in tetraploid Pacific oyster sperm characteristics in relation to time post activation. Sperm individually collected on three tetraploid males were activated in seawater. Their features were analysed over a 24 h period and compared to a sperm pool collected on three diploid males as a reference. The percentage of motile spermatozoa, the intracellular ATP content, and the fine structure of spermatozoa were studied in relation to time post activation. Furthermore, the fertilisation capacity of sperm individually collected on five diploid males was assessed after 1 and 24 h post activation. A forward progressive movement was maintained for at least a 20 h duration. Compared to diploid males, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was lower in tetraploid males. The intracellular ATP concentration was higher in spermatozoa from tetraploid males than in spermatozoa from diploid males. A decrease in ATP content was observed in the first 6 h post activation and severe alterations were observed in sperm morphology after 24 h. Then, a lower fertilisation capacity of sperm from diploid males was observed at the end of the movement phase. The cessation of Pacific oyster sperm motility was unlikely caused by ATP consumption as ATP concentration was still high at the end of sperm movement but rather caused by drastic changes in sperm morphology. Compared to sperm collected on diploid males, the lower quality of sperm from tetraploid males was emphasized by a shorter movement duration and deeper morphological alterations at the end of the movement phase. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | SYSAAF, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and Choice Genetics France
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie | Year: 2016

Poultry breeding schemes permanently face the need to control the evolution of coancestry and some critical traits, while selecting for a main breeding objective. The main aims of this article are first to present an efficient selection algorithm adapted to this situation and then to measure how the severity of constraints impacted on the degree of loss for the main trait, compared to BLUP selection on the main trait, without any constraint. Broiler dam and sire line schemes were mimicked by simulation over 10 generations and selection was carried out on the main trait under constraints for coancestry and for another trait, antagonistic with the main trait. The selection algorithm was a special simulated annealing (adaptative simulated annealing (ASA)). It was found to be rapid and able to meet constraints very accurately. A constraint on the second trait was found to induce an impact similar to or even greater than the impact of the constraint on coancestry. The family structure of selected poultry populations made it easy to control the evolution of coancestry at a reasonable cost but was not as useful for reducing the cost of controlling evolution of the antagonistic traits. Multiple constraints impacted almost additively on the genetic gain for the main trait. Adding constraints for several traits would therefore be justified in real life breeding schemes, possibly after evaluating their impact through simulated annealing.


Bugeon J.,Genopole | Lefevre F.,Genopole | Cardinal M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Uyanik A.,Genopole | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Muscle Foods | Year: 2010

Rainbow trout with different fillet yield [56 and 65% for low (LY) and high yield (HY), respectively] were examined for muscle organization and flesh quality (instrumental and sensorial evaluations). Both groups had similar body weight (3.6 kg in mean), but the HY group had a higher carcass yield (+15%). Higher total muscle area in the HY group (+20%) was associated with a higher number of muscle fibers (+22%). Flesh of the HY group presented a higher area of myosepta (+10%), fat content (+10%) and luminosity (+6%). Raw fillet mechanical resistance was higher for the HY group; an opposite result was obtained for cooked flesh. Sensorial evaluation of cooked flesh revealed no important differences between groups. Smoked fillet from the HY group presented higher area of white stria and lower flesh color intensity. To conclude, higher muscle mass content had no negative consequences on flesh quality in rainbow trout. © 2010, The Author(s). Journal of Muscle Foods © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors and SYSAAF
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Semen cryopreservation is a unique tool for the management of animal genetic diversity. However, the freeze-thaw process causes biochemical and physical alterations which make difficult the restoration of sperm energy-dependent functions needed for fertilization. 5-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor and regulator of intracellular energy metabolism. Mitochondria functions are known to be severely affected during sperm cryopreservation with deleterious oxidative and peroxidative effects leading to cell integrity and functions damages. The aim of this study was thus to examine the role of AMPK on the peroxidation/antioxidant enzymes defense system in frozen-thawed sperm and its consequences on sperm functions. Chicken semen was diluted in media supplemented with or without AMPK activators (AICAR or Metformin [MET]) or inhibitor (Compound C [CC]) and then cryopreserved. AMPK phosphorylation, antioxidant enzymes activities, mitochondrial potential, ATP, citrate, viability, acrosome reaction ability (AR) and various motility parameters were negatively affected by the freeze-thaw process while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and lactate concentration were dramatically increased. AICAR partially restored superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Glutathione Reductase (GR), increased ATP, citrate, and lactate concentration and subsequently decreased the ROS and LPO (malondialdehyde) in frozen-thawed semen. Motility parameters were increased (i.e., + 23% for motility, + 34% for rapid sperm) as well as AR (+ 100%). MET had similar effects as AICAR except that catalase activity was restored and that ATP and mitochondrial potential were further decreased. CC showed effects opposite to AICAR on SOD, ROS, LPO and AR and motility parameters. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that, upon freeze-thaw process, AMPK stimulated intracellular anti-oxidative defense enzymes through ATP regulation, thus reducing ROS and lipid peroxidation, and consequently partially restoring several essential sperm functions and leading to a better quality of cryopreserved sperm.

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