Syracuse, NY, United States
Syracuse, NY, United States

Syracuse University, commonly referred to as Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU, is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary , founded by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York, in 1831. Following several years of debate over relocating the college to Syracuse, the university was established in 1870, independent of the college. Since 1920, the university has identified itself as nonsectarian, although it maintains a relationship with The United Methodist Church.The campus is located in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse, east and southeast of downtown, on one of the larger hills. Its large campus features an eclectic mix of buildings, ranging from nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival structures to contemporary buildings. SU is organized into 13 schools and colleges, with nationally recognized programs in information studies and library science, architecture, communications, business administration, sport management, public administration, engineering and the College of Arts and science.Syracuse University athletic teams, known as the Orange, participate in 20 intercollegiate sports. SU is a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference for all NCAA Division I athletics, except for women's ice hockey, and the rowing team. SU is also a member of the Eastern College Athletic Conference. Wikipedia.

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Syracuse University | Date: 2016-09-01

Small molecule ghrelin O-acyltransferase inhibitors found using an assay to detect ghrelin O-acyltransferase activity using an acrylodan-labeled peptide mimic of ghrelin that provides for high-throughput screening for ghrelin O-acyltransferase inhibitors and detection via high performance liquid chromatography. The newly discovered class of synthetic triterpenoids efficiently inhibits ghrelin acylation by GOAT and function as covalent reversible inhibitors of GOAT. In cell studies, the most potent members of this family of compounds efficiently block ghrelin acylation at submicromolar concentrations and offer a foundation for continued development and evaluation of novel hGOAT inhibitors as therapeutics targeting disorders such obesity, type II diabetes, gastroparesis, and Prader-Willi syndrome.

Syracuse University | Date: 2016-09-02

A system of topographic patterns for the prevention of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. The patterns may be provided on the surfaces of certain devices that are prone to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, such as urinary catheters. To reduce bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, and to remove existing biofilms, the patterns are induced to transform from a first topography to a second topography. For example, the surface patterns may be formed from a shape memory polymer and then heated to transform the patterns from the first topography to the second topography to dislodge bacteria and prevent fouling.

Syracuse University | Date: 2016-09-23

A method for characterizing at least a portion of the biodiversity of a sample. The method includes the steps of: (i) obtaining a sample having nucleic acid from a plurality of different organisms; (ii) extracting at least a portion of the nucleic acid from the sample; (iii) optionally performing a whole-genome amplification of the extracted nucleic acid; (iv) optionally performing a second, targeted amplification; (v) sequencing the amplified nucleic acid to obtain sequence data comprising a nucleic acid sequence for at least some of the plurality of different organisms; (vi) querying, using the obtained sequence data, a sequence database, where querying the sequence database identifies one or more of the plurality of different organisms; and (vii) determining, using the identified one or more of the plurality of different organisms, a characteristic of the sample.

A self-replenishing biocompatible hydrogel having a zwitterionic polymer embedded throughout the matrix system to act as a lubricant and a surface modified with the same zwitterionic polymer. When surface material loss occurs in the hydrogel, such as a surface crack or a scratch, the damage propagates through the matrix rupturing the pockets of lubricant. The zwitterionic polymer is then drawn into the site due to the change in entropy at the surface and the positive and negative charge groups of the side chains fuse across the damage cite due to strong electrostatic attraction causing inter-chain association.

Zhang P.,Syracuse University
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2013

Affect is a critical factor in human decisions and behaviors within many social contexts. In the information and communication technology (ICT) context, a growing number of studies consider the affective dimension of human interaction with ICTs. However, few of these studies take systematic approaches, resulting in inconsistent conclusions and contradictory advice for researchers and practitioners. Many of these issues stem from ambiguous conceptualizations of various affective concepts and their relationships. Before researchers can address questions such as "what causes affective responses in an ICT context" and "what impacts do affective responses have on human interaction with ICTs," a theoretical foundation for affective concepts and their relationships has to be established. This theory and review paper addresses three research questions: (1) What are pertinent affective concepts in the ICT context? (2) In what ways are these affective concepts similar to, or different from each other? (3) How do these affective concepts relate to or influence one another? Based on theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence, the affective response model (ARM) is developed. ARM is a theoretically bound conceptual framework that provides a systematic and holistic reference map for any ICT study that considers affect. It includes a taxonomy that classifies affective concepts along five dimensions: the residing, the temporal, the particular/general stimulus, the object/behavior stimulus, and the process/outcome dimensions. ARM also provides a nomological network to indicate the causal or co-occurring relationships among the various types of affective concepts in an ICT interaction episode. ARM has the power for explaining and predicting, as well as prescribing, potential future research directions. Copyright © 2013 by the Management Information Systems Research Center (MISRC) of the University of Minnesota.

Vidali G.,Syracuse University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

The importance of understanding how molecular hydrogen is formed in space is 4-fold. Rapid progress in surface science, and especially in the interaction of atoms or molecules with surfaces, was obtained in the 1980s and 1990s in part due to availability of ultrahigh vacuum techniques and the use of single crystal surfaces for which cleaning and characterization methods could be readily established. Improvements in the application of DFT to atom-surface interaction have led to a more accurate handling of the interaction at large distances where weak dispersion-like forces should dominate. The first involves long-range dispersion forces and the characteristics energies are in the tens to a few hundred meV, while chemisorption is about eV energies and chemical bonding. Obviously, this is just a coarse way to categorize an otherwise wide range of complex interactions.

Trendowski M.,Syracuse University
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2014

Sonodynamic therapy is a potential cancer treatment modality that has been gaining support due to its effectiveness in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The therapeutic method combines ultrasonic irradiation with drugs known as sonosensitizers that amplify its ability to inflict preferential damage on malignant cells. This is based on the idea that ultrasonic waves have the ability to exhibit profound physical and chemical changes on cellular structure. The mechanisms by which ultrasound (US) disrupts cellular functioning can be further amplified when sonosensitizers are applied. Combining multiple sonosensitizers with US to create a substantial synergistic effect could be an effective method for destroying tumorigenic growths, while decreasing the likelihood of drug resistance. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS | Award Amount: 145.54K | Year: 2017

Nontechnical Abstract

A mismatch in curvature between two surfaces is a common problem in nature and industry: flat bandages dont stick as well to curved knuckles or elbows, maps of the earth exaggerate areas near the poles, and automotive metal must be stamped or forged to make a curved fender. The project investigates such geometric frustration in a class of extremely bendable materials that are nonetheless hard to stretch, including ultrathin polymer films, textiles, and lightweight inflatable structures. The research investigates how the curvature of a liquid surface can propel thin polymer films, and how it can also wrinkle and crease them. The results will uncover new ways for controlling liquid interfaces by using flexible sheets, going beyond current methods using soap or solid particles. The research is coupled to a set of education and outreach projects that target a wide range of audiences. The project will train two PhD students, who will work with high school students and undergraduates in the lab. High-school teachers will also conduct research internships. A laboratory YouTube channel will be created, and an installation on wrinkling will be developed for the Museum of Science and Technology in downtown Syracuse, NY.

Technical Abstract

The project investigates the mechanical and geometrical behaviors of extremely bendable yet nearly inextensible sheets, a class of materials that includes ultrathin polymer films, textiles, and lightweight inflatable structures. First, curvature-driven assembly of thin polymer films on liquid surfaces is investigated. The energy landscape of an ultrathin sheet on a curved topography can be quantified using simulations that harness a newly-developed geometric framework, which allows one to side-step the highly nonlinear sheet equations in favor of a simple geometric minimization. Experiments study the additional role of gravity and probe the dynamics of a sheet that is propelled by a curvature gradient. The results will uncover new methods for controlling and modifying liquid surfaces with thin films, going beyond what can be accomplished with particle and molecular surfactants. Second, stress-focusing transitions are studied for floating polymer films. It is generally unknown how curvature, tension, and confinement conspire to create sharp stress-focusing features out of smooth wrinkles. A wrinkle-to-crumple transition is studied for polymer films in several well-controlled setups including: (i) indentation into a liquid bath, (ii) axial compression on a cylindrically-curved meniscus, and (iii) isotropic compression. The work will shed light on pattern formation and symmetry breaking in nonlinear settings.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ECOSYSTEM STUDIES | Award Amount: 963.49K | Year: 2016

Grasslands are critical in sustaining human livelihoods, such as farming and livestock grazing, and storing greenhouse gases as soil carbon across vast areas of the earth surface. Many of these areas have very poor soils that are low in nutrients for plants, like nitrogen and phosphorus, but the growth of the grasses is often higher than expected. A key process in maintaining unexpectedly high grass growth is called nitrogen fixation, where plants acquire their nitrogen from the air. In previous work in Serengeti National Park in east Africa, it was discovered that grass roots, like more familiar legumes or members of the bean family, host abundant, active bacteria that can fix large amounts of nitrogen. The result is a complex web of various nitrogen-fixing bacteria, other associated soil microbes, the host grasses, and a diversity of grazing animals. This project builds on a long history of ecological research in Serengeti National Park and will explore how grazing, rainfall and the availability of other soil nutrients combine to affect nitrogen fixation. The work will also explore if mycorrhizal fungi, which also live in association with grass roots and benefit plants in other ways, compete with nitrogen-fixing bacteria for sugars and other forms of carbon supplied by their host plants and thus reduce bacterial nitrogen-fixation. Nitrogen limits productivity and ecosystem services in most terrestrial ecosystems, and nitrogen-fixation by bacteria associated with grass roots may prove to be the most important source of nitrogen and driver of productivity, ecosystem services, and rural human livelihoods in many tropical and subtropical grasslands and savannas. The results will be used in an ongoing collaboration with The Nature Conservancy and other non-government organizations to help more than 40 local human communities in Tanzania and Kenya adopt new livestock and fire management practices that sequester soil carbon, improve sustainable livestock production, and potentially generate the sale of carbon credits on voluntary markets. This project will also employ and train undergraduate and graduate students through summer field courses and participation in the research.

This project will explore, for the first time, the key interactions among grazing animals, plants, and beneficial soil microbes centered on nitrogen fixation. It has four parts: (1) to determine the occurrence and magnitude of nitrogen fixation by many different grass species across a range of soil, grazing, and rainfall conditions, (2) to conduct experiments that will test if grazing and water, nitrogen, and phosphorus affect nitrogen-fixation by grasses differently than legumes under the same conditions, (3) to conduct experiments in large pots where AM fungi and bacteria are controlled to test for competition between these different groups of microbes, and (4) to develop and test a simple computer model that integrates how rainfall, grazing, competition with mycorrhizal fungi, or nutrient limitation interact to control nitrogen-fixation and grass productivity. This new modeling will show how the abundance of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and beneficial fungi changes the storage of carbon as soil organic matter and leads to the development of herbivore-plant-mutualist webs that ultimately produce the key carbon inputs of above- and belowground plant litter, dung, and AM fungal hyphae to soil organic carbon. These model outcomes will be linked with recently validated modeling of soil carbon dynamics in the Serengeti to understand how nitrogen-fixation links to possible soil carbon sequestration and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 999.72K | Year: 2016

The Strategic Undergraduate STEM Talent Acceleration Initiative (SUSTAIN) project at Syracuse University will address the challenges of recruiting and retaining high-achieving, low-income students from diverse backgrounds into undergraduate STEM programs. The SUSTAIN program will award thirty $10,000 scholarships for up to two years, and will provide a coherent system of academic, social, and career support services strategically designed to enhance the success of biology and chemistry students during their first and second years of undergraduate study. Program goals include retaining at least 90% of the initial cohort of 30 scholars as intended or declared STEM majors following their freshman year, and to retain at least 80% of these students as declared STEM majors following their second year of participation in the SUSTAIN program. The program will establish a STEM faculty professional development workshop designed to foster the implementation of cutting-edge instructional practices that support dynamic, active learning approaches in introductory STEM courses.

Scholars will be provided 360 degree wrap-around support programming that is responsive to their evolving academic, social, and career development needs as they move through the freshman and sophomore years. Research efforts will investigate the socialization experiences of scholars throughout the program to examine the efficacy of the multi-faceted series of intervention supports to assess their impact on the future STEM trajectories of students. Findings from this project will promote the identification of promising approaches, identify areas for program refinement, and result in the development of a sustainable model for providing wraparound academic and social support services to STEM majors that can be replicated on other campuses.

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