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Carlsbad, CA, United States

Russell A.L.,East Carolina University | Williams B.C.,East Carolina University | Spuches A.,East Carolina University | Klapper D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

The intent of this investigation was to determine the effect of varying the side chain length of the basic amino acids residues on the binding of a series of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to zwitterionic and anionic LUVs, SUVs and micelles. These AMPs are based on the incorporation of three dipeptide units consisting of the unnatural amino acids Tic-Oic in the sequence, Ac-GF-Tic-Oic-GX-Tic-Oic-GF-Tic-Oic-GX-Tic-XXXX-CONH2, where X (Spacer #2) may be one of the following amino acids, Lys, Orn, Dab, Dpr or Arg. A secondary focus of this study was to attempt to correlate the possible mechanisms of membrane binding of these AMPs to their bacterial strain potency and selectivity. These AMPs produced different CD spectra in the presence of zwitterionic DPC and anionic SDS micelles. This observation indicates that these AMPs adopt different conformations on binding to the surface of zwitterionic and anionic membrane model systems. The CD spectra of these AMPs in the presence of zwitterionic POPC and anionic 4:1 POPC/POPG LUVs and SUVs also were different, indicating that they adopt different conformations on interaction with the zwitterionic and anionic liposomes. This observation was supported by ITC and calcein leakage data that indicated that these AMPs interact via very different mechanisms with anionic and zwitterionic LUVs. The enthalpy for the binding of these AMPs to POPC directly correlates to the length of Spacer #2. The enthalpy of binding of these AMPs to 4:1 POPC/POPG, however do not correlate with the length of Spacer #2. Clear evidence exists that the AMP containing the Dpr residues (the shortest length spacer) interacts very differently with both POPC and 4:1 POPC/POPG LUVs compared to the other four compounds. Data indicates that both the hydrophobicity and the charge distribution of Spacer #2, contribute to defining antibacterial activity. These observations have major implications on the development of these analogs as potential therapeutic agents. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Russell A.L.,East Carolina University | Kennedy A.M.,East Carolina University | Spuches A.M.,East Carolina University | Gibson W.S.,East Carolina University | And 5 more authors.
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids | Year: 2011

Circular Dichroism (CD), isothermal calorimetry (ITC) and calcein fluorescence leakage experiments were conducted to provide insight into the mechanisms of binding of a series of antimicrobial peptides containing unnatural amino acids (Ac-XF-Tic-Oic-XK-Tic-Oic-XF-Tic-Oic-XK-Tic-KKKK-CONH 2) to zwitterionic and anionic micelles, SUVs and LUVs; where X (Spacer# 1) is either Gly, β-Ala, Gaba or 6-aminohexanoic acid. It is the intent of this investigation to correlate these interactions with the observed potency and selectivity against several different strains of bacteria. The CD spectra of these compounds in the presence of zwitterionic DPC micelles and anionic SDS micelles are very different indicating that these compounds adopt different conformations on binding to the surface of anionic and zwitterionic membrane models. These compounds also exhibited very different CD spectra in the presence of zwitterionic POPC and anionic mixed 4:1 POPC/POPG SUVs and LUVs, indicating the formation of different conformations on interaction with the two membrane types. This observation is also supported by ITC and calcein leakage data. ITC data suggested these peptides interact primarily with the surface of zwitterionic LUVs and was further supported by fluorescence experiments where the interactions do not appear to be concentration dependent. In the presence of anionic membranes, the interactions appear more complex and the calorimetric and fluorescence data both imply pore formation is dependent on peptide concentration. Furthermore, evidence suggests that as the length of Spacer# 1 increases the mechanism of pore formation also changes. Based on the observed differences in the mechanisms of interactions with zwitterionic and anionic LUVs these AMPs are potential candidates for further drug development. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Venugopal D.,East Carolina University | Klapper D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Srouji A.H.,Synthetic Proteomics | Bhonsle J.B.,U.S. Army | And 5 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

One of the greatest challenges facing modern medicine is the evolution of drug resistant strains of bacteria. In addition to traditional methods of exposure to traditional bacterial organisms there is a growing concerned of the use of bacteria as bio-terrorism agents. To counter the evolution of drug resistant and potential bio-terrorism bacterial agents new antibiotic drugs must be developed. One potential source of new therapeutic agents that act via a novel mechanism of action are natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In our laboratories we have developed a series of AMPs incorporating the un-natural amino acids Tic-Oic to impart organism selectivity and potency while increasing metabolic stability. Herein the in vitro activity of these peptides, including ten new compounds, against eight potential bio-terrorism bacterial agents and three other bacterial strains is presented and discussed. These peptides exhibit a wide range of organism potency and selectivity. Calcein fluorescence leakage and circular dichroism studies were conducted to confirm that these peptides interact with zwitterionic and anionic liposomes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Russell A.L.,East Carolina University | Spuches A.M.,East Carolina University | Williams B.C.,East Carolina University | Venugopal D.,East Carolina University | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Extensive circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and induced calcein leakage studies were conducted on a series of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), with a varying number of Lys residues located at either the C-terminus or the N-terminus to gain insight into their effect on the mechanisms of binding with zwitterionic and anionic membrane model systems. Different CD spectra were observed for these AMPs in the presence of zwitterionic DPC and anionic SDS micelles indicating that they adopt different conformations on binding to the surfaces of zwitterionic and anionic membrane models. Different CD spectra were observed for these AMPs in the presence of zwitterionic POPC and anionic mixed 4:1 POPC/POPG LUVs and SUVs, indicating that they adopt very different conformations on interaction with these two types of LUVs and SUVs. In addition, ITC and calcein leakage data indicated that all the AMPs studied interact via very different mechanisms with anionic and zwitterionic LUVs. ITC data suggest these peptides interact primarily with the surface of zwitterionic LUVs while they insert into and form pores in anionic LUVs. CD studies indicated that these compounds adopt different conformations depending on the ratio of POPC to POPG lipids present in the liposome. There are detectable spectroscopic and thermodynamic differences between how each of these AMPs interacts with membranes, that is position and total charge density defines how these AMPs interact with specific membrane models and thus partially explain the resulting diversity of antibacterial activity of these compounds. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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