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Pallela R.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research | Year: 2014

Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Garg S.,Malaria Group | Agarwal S.,Malaria Group | Kumar S.,Plant Biology Plant Transformation Group | Shams Yazdani S.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group | And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Clinical malaria is associated with proliferation of blood-stage parasites. During the blood stage, Plasmodium parasites invade host red blood cells, multiply, egress and reinvade uninfected red blood cells to continue the life cycle. Here we demonstrate that calcium-dependent permeabilization of host red blood cells is critical for egress of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. Although perforin-like proteins have been predicted to mediate membrane perforation during egress, the expression, activity and mechanism of action of these proteins have not been demonstrated. Here, we show that two perforin-like proteins, perforin-like protein 1 and perforin-like protein 2, are expressed in the blood stage. Perforin-like protein 1 localizes to the red blood cell membrane and parasitophorous vacuolar membrane in mature schizonts following its Ca2+ -dependent discharge from micronemes. Furthermore, perforin-like protein 1 shows Ca2+ -dependent permeabilization and membranolytic activities suggesting that it may be one of the effector proteins that mediate Ca2+ -dependent membrane perforation during egress. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Koigoora S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Koigoora S.,University Of Averio | Ahmad I.,University Of Averio | Pallela R.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group | Janapala V.R.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

Marine sediments of the Gulf of Mannar (GoM), India are contaminated by potential toxic elements (PTEs) due to anthropogenic activities posing a risk to the existing fragile coral ecosystem and human health. The current study aimed to assess the distribution of PTEs (arsenic - As; cobalt - Co; copper - Cu, molybdenum - Mo; lead - Pb; and zinc - Zn) in marine sediments of different grain size fractions, viz.; medium sand (710 μm), fine sand (250 μm), and clay (<63 μm) among the different coastal regions of Pamban, Palk Bay, and Rameswaram coasts of GoM, using grain size as one of the key factor controlling their concentrations. The concentrations of PTEs were measured in the different size fractions of sediment using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer. The order of accumulation of all PTEs in the three fractions was ranked as Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Co > Mo and in the three locations as Rameswaram > Palk Bay > Pamban. The concentration of PTEs in Palk Bay and Rameswaram coast was significantly different (P < 0.05), when compared to Pamban coast. Measured geoaccumulation index (I geo) and contamination factor (CF) indicated significant enrichment of Co and Pb from Rameswaram coast when compared to other two coasts. Although the concentration of Co was low but the measured I geo and CF values indicated significant enrichment of this PTE in Rameswaram coast. The increased input of PTEs in the coastal regions of GoM signifies the need to monitor the coast regularly using suitable monitoring tools such as sediments to prevent further damage to the marine ecosystem. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Munjal N.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group | Jawed K.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group | Wajid S.,Jamia Hamdard University | Yazdani S.S.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group | Yazdani S.S.,Advanced BioEnergy
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be attractive and viable due to the abundance and availability of this biomass. The hydrolysis of this biomass, however, is challenging because of the complex lignocellulosic structure. The ability to produce hydrolytic cellulase enzymes in a cost-effective manner will certainly accelerate the process of making lignocellulosic ethanol production a commercial reality. These cellulases may need to be produced aerobically to generate large amounts of protein in a short time or anaerobically to produce biofuels from cellulose via consolidated bioprocessing. Therefore, it is important to identify a promoter that can constitutively drive the expression of cellulases under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions without the need for an inducer. Using lacZ as reporter gene, we analyzed the strength of the promoters of four genes, namely lacZ, gapA, ldhA and pflB, and found that the gapA promoter yielded the maximum expression of the β-galactosidase enzyme under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We further cloned the genes for two cellulolytic enzymes, β-1,4-endoglucanase and β-1,4-glucosidase, under the control of the gapA promoter, and we expressed these genes in Escherichia coli, which secreted the products into the extracellular medium. An ethanologenic E. colistrain transformed with the secretory β-glucosidase gene construct fermented cellobiose in both defined and complex medium. This recombinant strain also fermented wheat straw hydrolysate containing glucose, xylose and cellobiose into ethanol with an 85% efficiency of biotransformation. An ethanologenic strain that constitutively secretes a cellulolytic enzyme is a promising platform for producing lignocellulosic ethanol. © 2015 Munjal et al.

Adlakha N.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group | Yazdani S.S.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

We report here the production of pure (R,R)-2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) isomer by the non-pathogenic Paenibacillus polymyxa ICGEB2008 using lignocellulosic hydrolysate as substrate. Experimental design based on Plackett-Burman resulted in identification of Mn and K as most crucial salt elements along with the yeast extract for 2,3-BDO production. Further experiments using Box-Behnken design indicated that both KCl and yeast extract together had major impact on 2,3-BDO production. Optimized medium resulted in 2,3-BDO production with 2.3-fold higher maximum volumetric productivity (2.01 g/L/h) and similar yield (0.33 g/g sugar) as compared to rich yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium in the bioreactor studies. Considering that the balance substrate was channeled towards ethanol, carbon recovery was close to theoretical yield between the two solvents, i.e., 2,3-BDO and ethanol. Biomass hydrolysate and corn-steep liquor was used further to produce 2,3-BDO without impacting its yield. In addition, 2,3-BDO was also produced via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, signifying robustness of the strain. © 2014, Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.

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