Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation

Burnaby, Canada

Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation

Burnaby, Canada
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MacIas-Samano J.E.,Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation | Wakarchuk D.,Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation | Millar J.G.,University of California at Riverside | Hanks L.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Canadian Entomologist | Year: 2012

Two species in the genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) have recently been shown to have the same male-produced sex pheromone, 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol (monochamol), suggesting that other congeners may share the same pheromone. We tested that hypothesis by conducting field bioassays of monochamol, in combination with bark-beetle pheromones and the host plant volatiles ethanol and α-pinene, in southern British Columbia, Canada. We captured 603 Monochamus clamator (LeConte), 63 Monochamus obtusus Casey, 245 Monochamus scutellatus (Say) (tribe Monochamini), and 42 Acanthocinus princeps (Walker) (tribe Acanthocinini). All three Monochamus species were significantly attracted to the combination of monochamol and host plant volatiles, whereas bark-beetle pheromones plus plant volatiles and plant volatiles alone were minimally attractive. Adding bark-beetle pheromones to the monochamol plus plant volatiles treatment synergised attraction of M. clamator, but not the other two Monochamus species. Acanthocinus princeps was most strongly attracted to the combination of bark-beetle pheromones and plant volatiles, and did not appear to be affected by the presence or absence of monochamol in baits. We conclude that monochamol is a likely pheromone component for the three Monochamus species, and that monochamol plus host plant volatiles is an effective attractant for these and perhaps other North American Monochamus species. © 2012 Entomological Society of Canada.

PubMed | Health-U, Logan Research, Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation and U S WEST
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2016

We tested lethal trap trees and repellent semiochemicals as area treatments to protect host trees from spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) attacks. Lethal trap tree treatments (spray treatment) combined a spruce beetle bait with carbaryl treatment of the baited spruce. Repellent treatments (spray-repellent) combined a baited lethal trap tree within a 16-m grid of MCH (3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one) and two novel spruce beetle repellents. After beetle flight, we surveyed all trees within 50 m of plot center, stratified by 10-m radius subplots, and compared attack rates to those from baited and unbaited control plots. Compared to the baited controls, spruce in the spray treatment had significantly reduced likelihood of a more severe attack classification (e.g., mass-attacked over strip-attacked or unsuccessful-attacked over unattacked). Because spruce in the spray treatment also had significantly heightened probability of more severe attack classification than those in the unbaited controls, however, we do not recommend lethal trap trees as a stand-alone beetle suppression strategy for epidemic beetle populations. Spruce in the spray-repellent treatment were slightly more likely to be classified as more severely attacked within 30 m of plot center compared to unbaited controls but, overall, had reduced probabilities of beetle attack over the entire 50-m radius plots. The semiochemical repellents deployed in this study were effective at reducing attacks on spruce within treated plots despite the presence of a centrally located spruce beetle bait. Further testing will be required to clarify operational protocols such as dose, elution rate, and release device spacing.

Armendariz-Toledano F.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Nino A.,Colegio de Mexico | Sullivan B.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | MacIas-Samano J.,Colegio de Mexico | And 4 more authors.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2014

Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann is considered one of the most important economic and ecological forest pests in the United States, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, two apparent morphological variants of this species were discovered occurring syntopically in Central America and southern Mexico. Morphotype A beetles lack a series of fine parallel ridges on the episternal area of the prothorax that are present on morphotype B. The goal of the present work was to clarify the taxonomic status of the morphotypes of the D. frontalis species complex. Geometric morphometric analyses of seminal rod and spermatheca shape together with the characterization of 16 attributes of external morphology revealed differences in quantitative and qualitative characters that distinguished adults of the two morphotypes from each other as well as from the closely related species Dendroctonus vitei Wood and Dendroctonus mexicanus Hopkins. Karyotype analysis of morphotype B revealed a chromosomal formula (5AA + Xyp) distinct from that found in morphotype A previously reported for D. frontalis (7AA + Xyp). In the laboratory, forced intermorphotype crosses produced F1 progeny but at lower frequency than intramorphotype pairings, and dissections of spermatheca revealed a lower frequency of insemination at least one type of heterotypic cross. Phylogenetic analysis of the D. frontalis species complex based on 786 bp of the cytochrome oxidase I gene indicated that morphotypes B and A are two independent groups with 98% nodal support within D. frontalis. These data provide compelling evidence that the two syntopic morphotypes represent two distinct sibling species. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

Kendra P.E.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Montgomery W.S.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Deyrup M.A.,Archbold Biological Station | Wakarchuk D.,Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2015

The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA, now established in eight southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has caused extensive mortality in native Persea species, including redbay (P. borbonia), swampbay (P. palustris), and silkbay (P. humilis), and currently it threatens avocado (P. americana) in Florida. With continued spread, laurel wilt may impact additional Lauraceae throughout the Americas. Currently, the most effective lures for X. glabratus contain cubeb oil, an essential oil composed of a complex mixture of terpenoids. To elucidate the primary attractants of X. glabratus, fractional distillation was used to separate whole cubeb oil into 17 fractions. All fractions were used initially as substrates for electroantennographic (EAG) analyses to assess olfactory response; then eight representative fractions were chosen for binary-choice bioassays to assess behavioral response. Although fractions containing monoterpenes elicited the strongest EAG responses, significant attraction of X. glabratus was observed only with fractions that contained high percentages of the sesquiterpenes α-copaene and α-cubebene. This information was used to prepare two prototype lures, one of which contained copaiba oil (an essential oil consisting of 10 % α-copaene), and the other a proprietary product enriched to 50 % (−)-α-copaene content. In field trials, the copaiba and commercial cubeb lures captured equal numbers of X. glabratus, but the 50 % copaene lure captured significantly more beetles and had field longevity of 3 months. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA)

Armendariz-Toledano F.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Nino A.,Colegio de Mexico | Samano J.E.M.,Colegio de Mexico | Samano J.E.M.,Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation | Zuniga G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2014

The known distribution of the bark beetle Dendroctonus vitei Wood has been basically restricted to species-type location in Patzun, Guatemala, and in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico. There are also reports of the species in Veracruz, Oaxaca, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. This bark beetle cannot be confidently distinguished from its sibling species Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, Dendroctonus mexicanus Hopkins, and Dendroctonus sp. nov. by morphological characteristics (e.g., color and pronotum width). It has been proposal that the seminal rod is a useful characteristic to distinguish these species; however, its robustness has not been assessed quantitatively. The goal of the present work was to analyze the seminal rod from 601 specimens of the D. frontalis complex, collected in 89 locations from Mexico and Guatemala, using geometric morphometrics to clarify and update the distribution of D. vitei. Our results confirmed the presence of this species not only in the previously recognized locations (Patzun, Guatemala; San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas; Perote Veracruz, and Chipinque, Nuevo Leon) but also in seven new ones. The analyzed specimens of D. vitei and other D. frontalis complex species showed a strong differentiation in seminal rod shape among them. The accumulated information indicates that D. vitei is distributed across the entire Sierra Madre Oriental, the east Trans-Mexican volcanic belt, the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, and the Cordillera Central of Guatemala. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

Lopez M.F.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Armendariz-Toledano F.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Macias Samano J.E.,Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation | Shibayama-Salas M.,Av Institute Pol Nac 2508 | Zuniga G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2014

We compared the antennae of two sibling bark beetle species, Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright and Dendroctonus valens LeConte, to identify biologically and taxonomically relevant differences. Specifically, we characterized the diversity of sensilla types by using environmental scanning electron microscopy, quantified the abundance and distribution of the different types of sensilla on the antennal club, and characterized club shape through multivariate and geometric morphometric analyses. We identified four classes of sensilla in both species: chaetica, fluted, trichodea (three distinct types), and basiconica (long and short). ANOVA and MANOVA demonstrated that the number and distribution of sensilla with the potential for chemoreception (i.e., short and long basiconica) differed between species and sexes. Notably, the long sensilla basiconica in the third sensory band were clustered in D. rhizophagus but not in D. valens. Geometric morphometric analysis using 27 landmarks showed that antennal club shape differed significantly between the two species and was not correlated with antennal size. The shape differences were associated with the number and distribution of sensilla. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

Hanula J.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Sullivan B.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Wakarchuk D.,Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2013

Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.

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