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Paterson, NJ, United States

Rohde U.L.,TU Brandenburg | Poddar A.K.,Synergy Microwave
Microwave Journal | Year: 2014

The inherent disposition of scientists and philosophers is to envision, to explore and to speculate about new things in this vast cosmos. The vastness of cosmos makes us believe that we live in higher dimensions, or Möbius-shaped universes, where one can traverse the entire path without crossing the boundary or edge, if any, with no ending. Source


Rohde U.L.,TU Brandenburg | Poddar A.K.,Synergy Microwave
Microwave Journal | Year: 2014

Metamaterials (MTM) are artificial composite materials engineered to possess extraordinary electromagnetic properties, such as negative index characteristics. The characteristics of MTMs depend on the properties of the host materials, embedded material, volume of the fraction, operating frequency and the morphology of the composite material such as the dimensions and shapes of the host structure. A typical arrangement of planar split ring resonator (SRR) and complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) structures exhibit negative permeability and negative permittivity. Single negative property supported by a SRR or CSRR structure can offer a sharp stopband at the surrounding area of resonant frequency. This enables storage of EM energy into the SRR or CSRR structure through an evanescent-mode coupling mechanism, resulting in a high quality factor. The behavior of SRRs and CSRRs, and their derived geometries, are strictly dual for perfectly conducting and infinitely thin metallic screens placed in a vacuum. The standing wave supports strong EM coupling between the host transmission line and the negative index resonator (MTM resonator), causing strong localization and enhancement of evanescent mode-coupled energy. Source


Rohde U.L.,Synergy Microwave | Poddar A.K.,Synergy Microwave
Microwave Journal | Year: 2011

Historically, synthesizer developers have relied on a crystal based multiplied 1 GHz reference oscillator featuring excellent phase noise performance at frequencies of 3 GHz and above. A frequency multiplier crystal oscillator can offer low phase noise performance at frequencies ofl GHz and above, but at the cost of larger size, higher noise floor and higher power-consumptions. 1.7 The most dramatic change will occur when optimum loop bandwidth extends to a few megahertz, where reported adaptive mode-coupled harmonically tuned voltage controlled SAW oscillator (VCSO) noise performance supersede the performance of the conventional VCSOs and dielectric resonator oscillators (DRO), including the multiplied crystal oscillators at 3 GHz and above. Source

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