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Richland Center, WI, United States

Synchrotron Radiation Center

Richland Center, WI, United States
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Ju G.,Nagoya University | Tabuchi M.,Nagoya University | Takeda Y.,Synchrotron Radiation Center | Takeda Y.,Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2017

Ga1-xInxN epilayers (x = 0.09 or 0.14) grown on c-plane GaN layers with different densities of threading dislocations have been investigated by real-time x-ray reflectivity during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial growth. We found that the density of pre-existing threading dislocations in GaN plays an important role in the strain relaxation of Ga1-xInxN. Critical thicknesses were obtained and compared with theoretical predictions using the mechanical equilibrium model and the energy balance model. The critical thickness of GaInN varies inversely with dislocation density in the GaN sublayer. When the threading dislocation density in the sublayer was reduced by three orders of magnitude, the photoluminescence intensity of the Ga0.86In0.14N epilayer was improved by a factor of ten. © 2017 Author(s).


News Article | December 29, 2015
Site: www.scientificamerican.com

This collection of exhibits at the intersection of science and art should keep you entertained during the cold winter months, no matter where you are in the country. Get out of the house and enjoy! FRAGILE BEAUTY: The Art & Science of Sea Butterflies on view indefinitely Smithsonian Museum of Natural History 1st Floor, Center, Sant Ocean Hall, Research Case 10th St. & Constitution Ave. NW Washington, D.C. Artist Cornelia Kubler Kavanagh and biological oceanographer Gareth Lawson bring the plight of tiny ocean pteropods—or “sea butterflies” —to light with larger-than-life sculptures. Kavanagh’s sculptures are based on tiny sea snails no bigger than a grain of sand. They honor the floating beauty of these animals, while evoking their struggle to survive in the face of ocean acidification. Gareth Lawson, from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, studies ocean acidification and provided research that inspired Kavanagh’s creative work. REVEALING THE INVISIBLE: The History of Glass and the Microscope April 23, 2016 to March 19, 2017 The Corning Museum of Glass One Museum Way Corning, NY Glass made it possible for scientists and artists to see tiny living creatures once invisible to the human eye. Revealing the Invisible: The History of Glass and the Microscope tells the stories of scientists’ and artists’ exploration of the microscopic world between the 1600s and the late 1800s. Their discoveries fed people’s hunger to learn more about nature, increasing the popularity of microscopes and driving improvements in scientific glass. These advances culminated in the 19th century with the advent of modern scientific glassmaking and the perfection of the microscope. Unleash your sense of discovery as you explore the invisible through historic microscopes, rare books, and period illustrations. View the artworks of 23 artists who were selected from more than 100 entrants from around the world for this year’s science-inspired exhibition about biodiversity and extinction. The co-jurors for this exhibition were Elizabeth Corr, manager of art partnerships at the Natural Resources Defense Council, and Paula J. Ehrlich, president & CEO of the E.O. Wilson Biodiversity Foundation. This exhibition is the 17th International Art-Science Juried Exhibition organized by Art & Science Collaborations, Inc. (ASCI). Artists can use their skills and imagination to take on the issue of climate change and this work is now being seen in unprecedented numbers. The artists in Tipping Points use a variety of mediums including painting, photography, video, sculpture and drawing. Some have been partnering with scientists and environmental organizations. Others have been researching and documenting changes in glaciers and diminishing ice on trips to far northern regions of the planet; including boat trips to the Arctic and Antarctic. Some take a more poetic and imaginative approach to confront the seriousness of the issue and single biggest challenge of our time. HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF SKIN DISEASE: Selections from the New Sydenham Society Atlas 1860-1884 September 17, 2015 - January 10, 2016 Cushing/Whitney Medical Library Sterling Hall of Medicine 333 Cedar Street New Haven, CT In this exhibit, Yale dermatologists Jean Bolognia and Irwin Braverman present the celebrated nineteenth century illustrations to a current clinical audience, making a relevant teaching point with each plate.  Twenty-five of the Atlas’ forty-nine plates are selected for display.  They depict cutaneous diseases ranging from the common, e.g. psoriasis and eczema, to the rare, e.g. iododerma and systematized epidermal nevi.  Examples of skin signs of systemic disease, including Addison’s disease, neurofibromatosis, and lupus erythematosus, are also shown.  The emotional toll which these chronic diseases inflicted upon patients is a striking feature of the many portraits on view. This innovative new exhibition, Emergence: Craft + Technology, features work that exemplifies the ever-increasing intertwining of advanced digital processes with traditional hand-made craft. Whether through the use of computer design programs, CNC and automated tools, or 3D printing, we celebrate the use of new technologies in the production of state-of-the-art craft. MACRO OR MICRO?: Challenging our Perceptions of Scale Museum of Science Art & Science Gallery 1 Science Park Boston, MA Today, researchers study the Earth at a variety of scales and with a variety of advanced equipment. While satellites take images of entire landscapes, electron microscopes use a beam of electrons to magnify objects up to 500,000 times. The resulting images, which differ in scale of a million times or more, are featured side-by-side in Macro or Micro? Challenging our perceptions of scale. Geographer Stephen Young and biologist Paul Kelly, both with Salem State University, have gathered compelling images from their scientific research to test viewers' perceptions of the Earth. Challenge yourself to determine the scale of these stunning images — the patterns and similarities between macro and micro views may surprise you. Artist and ocean advocate Courtney Mattison creates large scale ceramic installations and sculptures inspired by science and marine biology. Her intricate hand-crafted porcelain works celebrate the fragile beauty of endangered coral reef ecosystems and promote awareness to conserve and protect our natural world. Origin of the Universe. Evolution of the Universe. String Theory. Dark Matter. Dark Energy. Multiverse. Unification of Space + Time. Our Solar System. Cultural Cosmology. Art.Science.Gallery.’s science-inspired printmakers explore the cosmos in this far out exhibition for PrintAustin 2016, a city-wide printmaking festival. BIRDS OF TENNESSEE: Celebrating the Centennial of the Tennessee Ornithological Society October 5, 2015 - TBD McClung Museum of Natural History & Culture University of Tennessee, Knoxville 1327 Circle Park Drive Knoxville, TN To celebrate the centennial of the Tennessee Ornithological Society (TOS), the museum is displaying fifty-six engravings and lithographs featuring the birds of Tennessee. Spanning two hundred years from 1731 to 1931, the prints on view are by twelve artists: Eleazar Albin, Mark Catesby, Xaviero Manetti, Alexander Wilson, Titian Ramsay Peale, Alexander Rider, Prideaux John Selby, John James Audubon, John Gould, Daniel Giraud Elliot, Henry Eeles Dresser, and Rex Brasher. The works on view are drawn from the museum’s extensive collection of over three thousand ornithological prints and are on display in the pull-out drawer case in the entrance to the Decorative Arts gallery. 25 Years of the Hubble Space Telescope July 12, 2015 - January 17, 2016 Museum of Arts and Sciences 4182 Forsyth Road Baton Rouge, LA Since its launch in April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided stunning images of far-away stars, galaxies, and nebulae, and has shed light on many of the great mysteries of the universe. Today, HST continues to provide views of cosmic wonders never before seen. This exhibit displays some of the most intriguing images taken by HST over the past 25 years. CONDENSED MATTER COMMUNITY by appointment through January 2016 Synchrotron Radiation Center: Home of Aladdin 3731 Schneider Dr. Stoughton, WI Condensed Matter Community is a site-specific curatorial project organized by Kristof Wickman and Evan Gruzis intended to generate a dialogue about science, aesthetics, progress and entropy. The project uses the site of a decommissioned particle accelerator facility in rural Wisconsin, The Synchrotron Radiation Center: Home of Aladdin, as an exhibition space to frame a selection of artworks, prior to forthcoming experiments. NUMBERS IN NATURE: A Mirror Maze new permanent exhibit Museum of Science and Industry 5700 S. Lake Shore Drive Chicago, IL Patterns are everywhere if you know where to look! From the delicate nested spirals of a sunflower’s seeds, to the ridges of a majestic mountain range, to the layout of the universe, mathematical patterns abound in the natural world. Numbers in Nature: A Mirror Maze is a new permanent exhibit that will expose and explain the patterns that surround us. As you enter Numbers in Nature, lenticular images and an immersive large-format film reveal these repeating patterns hidden throughout nature: spirals, occurrences of the "golden ratio" (), Voronoi patterns, and fractal branching. You will even discover patterns and ratios found in your own body and in centuries of music, art, and architecture so that you'll never look at the world the same way again. This exhibition explores the relationship between culture and nature, one of the oldest human tropes. In this recurring schism, humans believe ourselves to be of nature and, alternately, distinct from it. As we search texts and traditions to support either position, the persistence of the trope itself is underscored; it’s an impasse, shifting in form. It’s also an embrace of or a resistance to the natural world that produced us; from which we believe we stand apart. In Raw and Cooked, artists Jim Jacobs, Joshua Winegar, and Paul Crow present work within this nature/culture dialectic. Jacobs begins with an ancient horticultural intervention, the graft, to focus our attention on a literal intersection of the natural and the human-made. Winegar takes on the natural world as a partner in a conversation with his psyche, alternately responding to, and intervening in, the world which surrounds him. Crow maps the span of his life onto the time frame of the human awareness of global climate change. Each artist begins with material that exists before agency and brings it through a process of intervention to manifest a hybrid: the artist in dialogue both with the world and without, and with an inner understanding of that world. ATOMS + BYTES: Redefining Craft in the Digital Age March 4 – June 26, 2016 Bellevue Arts Museum 510 Bellevue Way NE Bellevue, WA Today's makers have access to a wider array of tools, materials, and processes than ever before. Digital methods such as scanning and imaging, coding, CNC-milling, and rapid prototyping not only influence the way objects are designed, manufactured, and distributed, but also change the terms of our relationships with them. Atoms + Bytes: Redefining Craft in the Digital Age will showcase works by 30 international and local makers situated at the intersection of the digital and the analogue worlds. These artists, craftspeople, and designers excel in material practices that span millennia of craft traditions, while drawing on cutting-edge digital tools to develop innovative ways of making. The integration of these atoms and bytes, building blocks of matter and information, generates the new forms and typologies that shape our changing world. Through the presentation of works that embody mergers of traditional and digital processes and materials, Atoms + Bytes reframes the conversation about the place of technology within the historical trajectory of object-making and offers an invitation to reevaluate the way we place value on craft and define "hand-made." FIRES OF CHANGE November 19, 2015 – April 3, 2016 University of Arizona Museum of Art 1031 North Olive Road Tucson, AZ The worlds of art and fire science come together in Fires of Change. Curated by Flagstaff installation artist Shawn Skabelund, Fires of Change explores the increase in severity, size, and number of wildfires in the Southwest and their impact on the landscape through the eyes of artists. Through the art, visitors can get a sense of the true impact of the fires, from human to environmental. Fires of Change is an NEA and Joint Fire Science Consortium funded exhibition originating at the Coconino Center for the Arts in Flagstaff. Eleven artists spent a week in 2014 in fire science boot camp with the Southwest Fire Science Consortium and the Landscape Conservation Initiative to learn about the impact of wildfire in Northern Arizona.  They then spent the year creating original works in reaction to their experiences. CALIFORNIA FLORA: Botanical Paintings in Colored Pencil by Nina Antze January 7, 2016 – April 25, 2016 Please call ahead 707-527-9277 x 107 to see exhibit Heron Hall, Laguna Environmental Center 900 Sanford Road, Santa Rosa, CA California Flora is an exhibit of botanical paintings by colored pencil artist Nina Antze. The paintings were created over the past eight years and focus mainly on California natives. Also included are paintings documenting Luther Burbank’s Experiment Farm in Sebastopol and a piece from the Alcatraz Florilegium, a documentation of the plants of the Alcatraz gardens. Nina Antze is a botanical artist and quilt maker living in Northern California. She has a degree in Fine Art from San Francisco State University and has a Certificate in Botanical Illustration from the New York Botanical Gardens. She teaches Colored Pencil classes in the Botanical Certificate Program at Filoli Gardens, at the Sebastopol Center for the Arts and around the Bay Area. Her botanical paintings and colored pencil drawings have been exhibited in New York, at the Huntington Library, and at Filoli Gardens and her quilts have won numerous awards. She works in colored pencil, watercolor pencil and fabric. Her botanicals can be viewed at her website, www.pcquilt.com THE ALCATRAZ FLORILEGIUM: A Special Botanical Art Exhibit January 16 - 29, 2016 University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley 200 Centennial Drive Berkeley, CA The Northern California Society of Botanical Artists (NCSBA) in collaboration with the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy and the Garden Conservancy has created a florilegium, a series of botanical paintings, to document the plants of The Gardens of Alcatraz. The UC Botanical Garden is thrilled to welcome the NCSBA to exhibit this special showing of the Alcatraz Florilegium, with over 70 drawings and paintings, in our beautiful Julia Morgan Hall. TENTACLES: The Astounding Lives of Octopuses, Squid, and Cuttlefishes April 12, 2014 - September 2016 Monterey Bay Aquarium 886 Cannery Row Monterey, CA Journey to a world of undersea magicians, masters of disguise and quick-change artists. Our special exhibition is the largest, most diverse living exhibit ever created to showcase these amazing animals. You won't believe your eyes. A walk from Mount Diablo to the Hayward shoreline would cross through many ecosystems, each with their own unique set of inhabitants. Some of these creatures have very specific needs and limited ranges. Others are more adaptable and seem perfectly at home in an urban backyard. This collection of work by science illustrator Lucy Conklin explores the vast array of wildlife in the East Bay, and some of our unusual visitors. Whether they are long time residents, returning to their natural habitat after a long hiatus, or an oddity passing through unexplained, their journeys have a story. Creative inspiration is at the heart of both science and art – and our array of indoor and outdoor art installations blend art and science in delightful and insightful ways. Current installations include: BEAM Robot Fish: Controlled by solar cells, this BEAM robot sculpture (Biology, Electronic, Aesthetics, Mechanics) is designed to live, feed and fend for itself in the ocean. Cloud: Check out this mesmerizing art installation composed of hundreds of rotating glass panels designed to mimic the changes of state from solid to liquid to gas. Jacquard Coverlet: Marvel at this wall hanging woven on our antique Jacquard loom by volunteers. Like a computer, the loom’s mechanism uses binary to create the pattern. Do you know of any exhibits or have an upcoming exhibit that should be included on this list? Send me an email at symbiartic (dot) km (at) gmail (dot) com, or tweet me @eyeforscience with the deets. If it's scienceart related, it's fair game.


Ju G.,Nagoya University | Fuchi S.,Nagoya University | Tabuchi M.,Nagoya University | Takeda Y.,Synchrotron Radiation Center | Takeda Y.,Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2013

The indium supplied on c-plane GaN templates using Metal organic vapor phase epitaxy was studied by in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) at 800 °C. The presence of liquid indium layers on the GaN (0001) surface was demonstrated using data-fitting of XRR measurements, ex situ atomic force microscope, auger electron spectroscopy, and cross-sectional scanning electron microscope. These measurements demonstrated that a liquid indium layer coexisted with indium droplets on top of the GaN (0001) surface at 800 °C. The liquid indium film thicknesses increased with increasing TMIn supply time and did not change during cooling from 800 °C to room temperature. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Ju G.,Nagoya University | Honda Y.,Nagoya University | Tabuchi M.,Nagoya University | Takeda Y.,Synchrotron Radiation Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2014

The effects of GaN quantum barriers with changing growth temperatures on the interfacial characteristics of GaN/InGaN single quantum well (SQW) grown on GaN templates by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy were in situ investigated by X-ray crystal truncation rod (CTR) scattering and X-ray reflectivity measurements at growth temperature using a laboratory level X-ray diffractometer. Comparing the curve-fitting results of X-ray CTR scattering spectra obtained at growth temperature with that at room temperature, the InxGa1-xN with indium composition less than 0.11 was stabile of the indium distribution at the interface during the whole growth processes. By using several monolayers thickness GaN capping layer to protect the InGaN well layer within temperature-ramping process, the interfacial structure of the GaN/InGaN SQW was drastically improved on the basis of the curve-fitting results of X-ray CTR scattering spectra, and the narrow full width at half-maximum and strong luminous intensity were observed in room temperature photoluminescence spectra. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Mattson E.C.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Pu H.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Cui S.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Schofield M.A.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | And 9 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

As silicon-based electronics are reaching the nanosize limits of the semiconductor roadmap, carbon-based nanoelectronics has become a rapidly growing field, with great interest in tuning the properties of carbon-based materials. Chemical functionalization is a proposed route, but syntheses of graphene oxide (G-O) produce disordered, nonstoichiometric materials with poor electronic properties. We report synthesis of an ordered, stoichiometric, solid-state carbon oxide that has never been observed in nature and coexists with graphene. Formation of this material, graphene monoxide (GMO), is achieved by annealing multilayered G-O. Our results indicate that the resulting thermally reduced G-O (TRG-O) consists of a two-dimensional nanocrystalline phase segregation: unoxidized graphitic regions are separated from highly oxidized regions of GMO. GMO has a quasi-hexagonal unit cell, an unusually high 1:1 O:C ratio, and a calculated direct band gap of ∼0.9 eV. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Demirkiran H.,University of Texas at Arlington | Hu Y.,Canadian Light Source Inc. | Zuin L.,Canadian Light Source Inc. | Appathurai N.,Synchrotron Radiation Center | Aswath P.B.,University of Texas at Arlington
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2011

Bioglass®45S5 was co-sintered with hydroxyapatite at 1200 °C. When small amounts (< 5 wt.%) of Bioglass®45S5 was added it behaved as a sintering aid and also enhanced the decomposition of hydroxyapatite to β-tricalcium phosphate. However when 10 wt.% and 25 wt.% Bioglass®45S5 was used it resulted in the formation of Ca5(PO4) 2SiO4 and Na3Ca6(PO 4)5 in an amorphous silicate matrix respectively. These chemistries show improved bioactivity compared to hydroxyapatite and are the subject of this study. The structure of several crystalline calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates as well as the co-sintered hydroxyapatite- Bioglass®45S5 bioceramics were examined using XANES spectroscopy. The nature of the crystalline and amorphous phases were studied using silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) K- and L2,3-edge and calcium (Ca) K-edge XANES. Si L2,3-edge spectra of sintered bioceramic compositions indicates that the primary silicates present in these compositions are sodium silicates in the amorphous state. From Si K-edge spectra, it is shown that the silicates are in a similar structural environment in all the sintered bioceramic compositions with 4-fold coordination. Using P L2,3-edge it is clearly shown that there is no evidence of sodium phosphate present in the sintered bioceramic compositions. In the P K-edge spectra, the post-edge shoulder peak at around 2155 eV indicates that this shoulder to be more defined for calcium phosphate compounds with decreasing solubility and increasing thermodynamic stability. This shoulder peak is more noticeable in hydroxyapatite and β-TCP indicating greater stability of the phosphate phase. The only spectra that does not show a noticeable peak is the composition with Na3Ca 6(PO4)5 in a silicate matrix indicating that it is more soluble compared to the other compositions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Mattson E.C.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Pande K.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Unger M.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Unger M.,Synchrotron Radiation Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2013

Sensors based on graphene and functionalized graphene are emerging as the state of the art for detecting extremely small quantities of target molecules under realistic working conditions with high selectivity. Although some theoretical work has emerged to understand such adsorption processes (Tang and CaoJ. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 8778; Leenaerts et al. Phys. Rev. B 2008, 77, 125416; Tang and CaoJ. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 044710), little experimental evidence detailing the dynamics of the adsorption and resulting surface species has been reported. Here, we study the adsorption of NH3 on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using in situ infrared (IR) microspectroscopy performed under realistic working conditions (i.e., ambient pressure), along with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to support experimental observations. Conclusions drawn from experiment and theory reveal the presence of various surface species that impact the conductivity of the substrate at varying rates. The species arising from adsorption and interactions between NH3 and RGO include molecularly physisorbed NH3, as well as chemisorbed fragments such as NH2, OH, and CH due to dissociation of NH 3 at defects and epoxide groups. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Seredin P.,Voronezh State University | Kashkarov V.,Voronezh State University | Lukin A.,Voronezh State University | Ippolitov Y.,Voronezh State Medical Academy | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation | Year: 2013

Investigations of intact dental enamel as well as carious-affected human dental enamel were performed using infrared spectromicroscopy and X-ray diffraction applying synchrotron radiation. Caries of enamel was shown to be characterized by an increase in the number of deformation and valence vibrations for N-C-O, N-H and C=O bonds, a decrease of the crystallinity index, and by the absence of the preferable orientation of hydroxyapatite crystals within the affected enamel. This indicates the presence of destructive processes in the organic matrix of hard tooth tissues. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.


Metzler R.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Evans J.S.,New York University | Killian C.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Killian C.E.,University of California at Berkeley | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Proteins play a major role in the formation of all biominerals. In mollusk shell nacre, complex mixtures and assemblies of proteins and polysaccharides were shown to induce aragonite formation, rather than the thermodynamically favored calcite (both aragonite and calcite are CaCO3 polymorphs). Here we used N16N, a single 30 amino acid-protein fragment originally inspired by the mineral binding site of N16, a protein in the nacre layer of the Japanese pearl oysters (Pinctada fucata). In a calcite growth solution this short peptide induces in vitro biomineralization. This model biomineral was analyzed using X-ray PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopy (X-PEEM) and found to be strikingly similar to natural nacre: lamellar aragonite with interspersed N16N layers. This and other findings combined suggest a hypothetical scenario in which in vivo three proteins (N16, Pif80, and Pif97) and a polysaccharide (chitin) work in concert to form lamellar nacre. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Ju G.,Nagoya University | Fuchi S.,Nagoya University | Tabuchi M.,Nagoya University | Takeda Y.,Synchrotron Radiation Center
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2013

The thermal decomposition of c-plane GaN/sapphire templates was studied in a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system installed in a laboratory-level X-ray diffractometer by using in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR). GaN remained thermally stable in pure N2 up to 900 °C, while a significant decomposition occurred at 950 °C. Then, thin InxGa1-xN epilayers were grown on the annealed templates at 830 °C. In situ XRR measurements were conducted before and after InGaN growth. By theoretical and experimental analyses of the XRR spectra, the sample structure change upon thermal annealing was clarified. Photoluminecescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results demonstrated that thermal annealing affected the optical properties and microstructures of InGaN films. The PL peaks from InGaN slightly blue-shifted with thermal annealing. © 2013 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

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