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Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands

Seigers R.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Loos M.,Sylics Synaptologics BV | Van Tellingen O.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Boogerd W.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | And 2 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2015

Rationale and objectives: Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with changes in cognition in a subgroup of cancer patients. Chemotherapy is generally given as a combination of cytotoxic agents, which makes it hard to define the agent responsible for these observed changes. Literature on animal experiments has been difficult to interpret due to variance in experimental setup. Methods: We examined the effects of cytotoxic agents administered separately on various cognitive measures in a standardized animal model. Male C57Bl/6 mice received cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, or topotecan. These agents represent different compound classes based on their working mechanism and are frequently prescribed in the clinic. A control group received saline. Behavioral testing started 2 or 15 weeks after treatment and included testing general measures of behavior and cognitive task performance: spontaneous behavior in an automated home cage, open field, novel location recognition (NLR), novel object recognition (NOR), Barnes maze, contextual fear conditioning, and a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT). Results: Cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, and doxorubicin administration affected spontaneous activity in the automated home cage. All cytotoxic agents affected memory (NLR and/or NOR). Spatial memory measured in the Barnes maze was affected after administration with doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and topotecan. Decreased inhibition in the SCRTT was observed after treatment with cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, and topotecan. Conclusions: Our data show that, in mice, a single treatment with a cytotoxic agent causes cognitive impairment. Not all cytotoxic agents affected the same cognitive domains, which might be explained by differences in working mechanisms of the various agents. © Springer-Verlag 2014.

Schipper L.,Danone Nutricia Research | van Dijk G.,University of Groningen | Broersen L.M.,Danone Nutricia Research | Loos M.,Sylics Synaptologics BV | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Infant cognitive development can be positively influenced by breastfeeding rather than formula feeding. The composition of breast milk, especially lipid quality, and the duration of breastfeeding have been linked to this effect. Objective: We investigated whether the physical properties and composition of lipid droplets in milk may contribute to cognitive development. Methods: From postnatal day (P) 16 to P44, healthy male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed either a control or a concept rodent diet, in which the dietary lipid droplets were large and coated with milk phospholipids, resembling more closely the physical properties and composition of breast milk lipids. Thereafter, all mice were fed an AIN-93M semisynthetic rodent diet. The mice were subjected to various cognitive tests during adolescence (P35-P44) and adulthood (P70-P101). On P102, mice were killed and brain phospholipids were analyzed. Results: The concept diet improved performance in short-term memory tasks that rely on novelty exploration during adolescence (T-maze; spontaneous alternation 87% in concept-fed mice compared with 74% in mice fed control diet; P < 0.05) and adulthood (novel object recognition; preference index 0.48 in concept-fed mice compared with 0.05 in control-fed mice; P < 0.05). Cognitive performance in long-term memory tasks, however, was unaffected by diet. Brain phospholipid composition at P102 was not different between diet groups. Conclusions: Exposure to a diet with lipids mimicking more closely the structure and composition of lipids in breast milk improved specific cognitive behaviors in mice. These data suggest that lipid structure should be considered as a relevant target to improve dietary lipid quality in infant milk formulas. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

Bruining H.,University Utrecht | Matsui A.,Osaka University | Oguro-Ando A.,University Utrecht | Kahn R.S.,University Utrecht | And 14 more authors.
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Background Quantitative genetic analysis of basic mouse behaviors is a powerful tool to identify novel genetic phenotypes contributing to neurobehavioral disorders. Here, we analyzed genetic contributions to single-trial, long-term social and nonsocial recognition and subsequently studied the functional impact of an identified candidate gene on behavioral development. Methods Genetic mapping of single-trial social recognition was performed in chromosome substitution strains, a sophisticated tool for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) of complex traits. Follow-up occurred by generating and testing knockout (KO) mice of a selected QTL candidate gene. Functional characterization of these mice was performed through behavioral and neurological assessments across developmental stages and analyses of gene expression and brain morphology. Results Chromosome substitution strain 14 mapping studies revealed an overlapping QTL related to long-term social and object recognition harboring Pcdh9, a cell-adhesion gene previously associated with autism spectrum disorder. Specific long-term social and object recognition deficits were confirmed in homozygous (KO) Pcdh9-deficient mice, while heterozygous mice only showed long-term social recognition impairment. The recognition deficits in KO mice were not associated with alterations in perception, multi-trial discrimination learning, sociability, behavioral flexibility, or fear memory. Rather, KO mice showed additional impairments in sensorimotor development reflected by early touch-evoked biting, rotarod performance, and sensory gating deficits. This profile emerged with structural changes in deep layers of sensory cortices, where Pcdh9 is selectively expressed. Conclusions This behavior-to-gene study implicates Pcdh9 in cognitive functions required for long-term social and nonsocial recognition. This role is supported by the involvement of Pcdh9 in sensory cortex development and sensorimotor phenotypes. © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Vegh M.J.,VU University Amsterdam | Rausell A.,University of Luxembourg | Loos M.,VU University Amsterdam | Loos M.,Sylics Synaptologics BV | And 9 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2014

Age-related cognitive decline is a serious health concern in our aging society. Decreased cognitive function observed during healthy brain aging is most likely caused by changes in brain connectivity and synaptic dysfunction in particular brain regions. Here we show that aged C57BL/ 6J wild-type mice have hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairments. To identify the molecular mechanisms that are relevant to these memory deficits, we investigated the temporal profile of mouse hippocampal synaptic proteome changes at 20, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 weeks of age. Extracellular matrix proteins were the only group of proteins that showed robust and progressive up-regulation over time. This was confirmed by immunoblotting and histochemical analysis, which indicated that the increased levels of hippocampal extracellular matrix might limit synaptic plasticity as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. In addition, we observed that stochasticity in synaptic protein expression increased with age, in particular for proteins that were previously linked with various neurodegenerative diseases, whereas low variance in expression was observed for proteins that play a basal role in neuronal function and synaptic neurotransmission. Together, our findings show that both specific changes and increased variance in synaptic protein expression are associated with aging and may underlie reduced synaptic plasticity and impaired cognitive performance in old age. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Geerts C.J.,VU University Amsterdam | Plomp J.J.,Leiden University | Koopmans B.,Sylics Synaptologics BV | Loos M.,Sylics Synaptologics BV | And 6 more authors.
Brain Structure and Function | Year: 2015

Tomosyn-1 (STXBP5) is a soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complex-binding protein that inhibits vesicle fusion, but the role of tomosyn-2 (STXBP5L) in the mammalian nervous system is still unclear. Here we generated tomosyn-2 null (Tom2KO/KO) mice, which showed impaired motor performance. This was accompanied by synaptic changes at the neuromuscular junction, including enhanced spontaneous acetylcholine release frequency and faster depression of muscle motor endplate potentials during repetitive stimulation. The postsynaptic geometric arrangement and function of acetylcholine receptors were normal. We conclude that tomosyn-2 supports motor performance by regulation of transmitter release willingness to sustain synaptic strength during high-frequency transmission, which makes this gene a candidate for involvement in neuromuscular disorders. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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