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Helsinki, Finland

Carmen E.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Nesshover C.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Saarikoski H.,SYKE | Vandewalle M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2015

As biodiversity continues to decline despite our increased knowledge of the drivers and consequences of biodiversity loss, much of the current focus is on strengthening interfaces between biodiversity knowledge and policy-making. While many of the challenges associated with science-policy interfaces are well known, what is less well studied is the more specific issue of how to integrate the broad range of knowledge relating to complex issues such as biodiversity and ecosystem services, to inform decision-making at regional and global scales. Based on a formative evaluation of the development of a European Network of Knowledge on biodiversity and ecosystem services, we identify key themes to build a broad biodiversity science community capable of developing integrated knowledge to inform decision-making. Based on these findings we outline future steps for the successful integration of knowledge in decision-making at the European, and also the global scale, in particular the Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). © 2015. Source

Takala M.,Finnish Meteorological Institute | Luojus K.,Finnish Meteorological Institute | Pulliainen J.,Finnish Meteorological Institute | Derksen C.,Environment Canada | And 4 more authors.
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2011

Snow water equivalent (SWE) is one of the key parameters describing seasonal snow cover. Traditional methods such as interpolating ground-based measurements or estimating SWE from spaceborne measurements have their shortcomings. In this paper an assimilation approach has been used to estimate a time series of SWE in hemispherical scale for 30 years. The behaviour of the algorithm is analyzed and scatterplot of validation results is presented. Results show an improvement over using traditional algorithms. © 2011 IEEE. Source

van Ruijven B.J.,NCAR | Levy M.A.,CIESIN | Agrawal A.,University of Michigan | Biermann F.,VU University Amsterdam | And 21 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

This paper discusses the role and relevance of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and the new scenarios that combine SSPs with representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability (IAV) research. It first provides an overview of uses of social-environmental scenarios in IAV studies and identifies the main shortcomings of earlier such scenarios. Second, the paper elaborates on two aspects of the SSPs and new scenarios that would improve their usefulness for IAV studies compared to earlier scenario sets: (i) enhancing their applicability while retaining coherence across spatial scales, and (ii) adding indicators of importance for projecting vulnerability. The paper therefore presents an agenda for future research, recommending that SSPs incorporate not only the standard variables of population and gross domestic product, but also indicators such as income distribution, spatial population, human health and governance. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013. Source

Jonsson B.F.,Princeton University | Doos K.,University of Stockholm | Myrberg K.,SYKE | Lundberg P.A.,University of Stockholm
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2011

When modelling is used for investigating estuarine systems, a choice generally has to be made between applying simple mass-balance considerations or using a process-resolving three-dimensional (3-D) numerical circulation model. In the present investigation of the Gulf of Finland, a gradually mixed estuary in the Baltic Sea, it is demonstrated how Lagrangian-trajectory analysis applied to the output from a 3-D model minimizes the disadvantages associated with both of the modelling techniques referred to above. This formalism made it possible to demonstrate that the main part of the Gulf is dominated by water originating from the Baltic proper, and that the most pronounced mixing with fresh water from the river Neva takes place over a limited zone in the inner part of the Gulf. Dynamical insights were furthermore obtained by using the Lagrangian formalism to construct overturning stream-functions for the two source waters. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pihkola H.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Nors M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Kujanpaa M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Helin T.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | And 4 more authors.
VTT Tiedotteita - Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus | Year: 2010

The aim of the LEADER project (2007-2010) was to study the environmental impacts occurring during the life cycle of print products. The scope of the project was focused on printed media products. The main products in the print media product group are newspapers, magazines, books and advertisements. In the study, two research methods were applied: product-specific life cycle assessment (including carbon footprint) and the environmentally extended inputoutput model ENVIMAT (Seppälä et al. 2009). Life cycle assessment is a method that provides detailed information about the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts connected to the life cycle of a product. Carbon footprinting is a fairly new application of life cycle assessment with its own specific calculation procedures. In the ENVIMAT model, the life cycle impact results of the whole Finnish economy or individual industries can be presented with indicators such as environmental impact category results (e.g. climate change). Thus the ENVIMAT model is a macro-level tool that provides an estimate of the environmental impacts related to the production and consumption of print products in Finland. During the project, data was collected concerning the whole life cycle of print products and five case products were selected for further study. Life cycle assessments were conducted and carbon footprints calculated for ? a regional newspaper (coldset offset printed) ? a weekly magazine (heatset offset printed) ? a photobook (printed with electrophotography). Additionally, a carbon footprint study was conducted for ? an advertisement leaflet (rotogravure printed) ? hardcover book (sheetfed offset printed). By selecting several case products, the potential impacts of different printing methods and different paper grades were included in the study. The case studies provide extensive examples of the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts - and especially of the carbon footprints - of printed products. Insofar as this was possible, the case studies were defined to present viable value chains that could exist in Finland. Due to several differences between the case products, the results of the studies are not directly comparable. However, the case studies point out many similarities and critical environmental aspects within the product group of fibre-based print products. Also the challenges related to the use of LCA and carbon footprint methodology to evaluate the environmental impacts of paper-based products have been illustrated and discussed in the context of the case studies. In all cases, the LCI, carbon footprint and LCIA results are reported divided into life cycle stages and considering both direct and indirect emissions and impacts. By presenting the sources and potential impacts according to life cycle stages, the influence of different actors over the impacts of the whole life cycle can be evaluated. The case studies provide new information about the potential environmental impacts related to print products. Especially the end-of-life treatments, all transport, manufacturing of printing ink and printing plates and the environmental impacts of electrophotography printing are aspects that have not been studied widely before. As part of data collection, the development of environmental performance within different printing methods was evaluated, and environmental indicators specific for the printing phase are discussed. Additionally, the results of the LEADER project can be used as help and background information when further developing methodologies and calculation principles suitable for fibrebased print products. Copyright © VTT 2010. Source

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