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Malmö, Sweden

Bashitialshaaer R.,Lund University | Persson K.M.,Sydvatten AB
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2011

Desalination can be a cost-effective way to produce fresh water and possibly electricity. The Gaza Strip has had a complex hydro-political situation formany years. Gaza is bordered by theMediterranean sea in the west, by Israel to the north and east and by Egypt in the south.Water and electricity consumption in the Gaza Strip is expected to increase in the future due to the increasing population. In this paper, a solution for Sinai and the Gaza Strip is suggested involving the building of a joint power and desalination plant, located in Egypt close to the border with Gaza. The suggested joint projectwould increase drinking water supply by 500,000 m 3/d and the power supply by 500 MW, of which two thirds is suggested to be used in Gaza and one third in Sinai. The present lack of electricity and water in Gaza could be erased by such a project. But Egypt will probably gainmore: morewater and electricity for the future development of Sinai and Gaza; a significant valuewill be added to the sale of Egyptian natural gas; more employment opportunities for Sinai people; the domesticmarket for operation andmaintenance of desalination plants can be boosted by the suggested project; Egypt may naturally and peacefully increase its cooperation with and presence in Gaza, which should lead to increased security. This type of project could also get international support and can be a role-model for cooperation and trust-building between neighbours. © 2011 IWA Publishing. Source

Biganzoli L.,Polytechnic of Milan | Ilyas A.,Lund University | Praagh M.V.,Lund University | Persson K.M.,Lund University | And 2 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2013

Waste incineration bottom ash fine fraction contains a significant amount of aluminium, but previous works have shown that current recovery options based on standard on-step Eddy Current Separation (ECS) have limited efficiency. In this paper, we evaluated the improvement in the efficiency of ECS by using an additional step of crushing and sieving. The efficiency of metallic Al recovery was quantified by measuring hydrogen gas production. The ash samples were also tested for total aluminium content with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). As an alternative to material recovery, we also investigated the possibility to convert residual metallic Al into useful energy, promoting H2 gas production by reacting metallic Al with water at high pH. The results show that the total aluminium concentration in the <4mm bottom ash fraction is on average 8% of the weight of the dry ash, with less than 15% of it being present in the metallic form. Of this latter, only 21% can be potentially recovered with ECS combined with crushing and sieving stages and subsequently recycled. For hydrogen production, using 10MNaOH at 1L/S ratio results in the release of 6-11l of H2 gas for each kilogram of fine dry ash, equivalent to an energy potential of 118kJ. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bashitialshaaer R.,Lund University | Flyborg L.,Lund University | Persson K.M.,Lund University | Persson K.M.,Sydvatten AB
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2011

This study assesses the environmental effects of brine discharge into the Arabian/Persian Gulf and the option of mixing with wastewater to reduce the salt content in the discharge. The Arabian Gulf region occupies about 3.3% of the world area and has 1.0, 2.0 and 2.2% of the total world population in the years 1950, 2008 and 2050 (prognosis) respectively. The study area desalination capacities were obtained as 50, 40 and 45% of total world capacity at the end of 1996, 2008 and 2050 (prognosis) respectively. The trend towards increased recovery ratio in the desalination plants was considered as one important environmental factor. This will significantly increase the brine salt concentration from 1.5 to more than 2 times the seawater. The allocation of wastewater and brine is important for the Arabian Gulf. Straightforward water and salt mass balances were used to calculate residual flow, exchange flow and exchange time in the Arabian Gulf. For example, at zero wastewater discharge from 1996 to 2008, the net volume in the Arabian Gulf decreased by 7.4 million m3/d, the exchange volume increased by 69 million m3/d, and the mixing time decreased by 22.5 d. Discharging a mix of brine and wastewater in the Arabian Gulf reduces the water and salt exchange between the Gulf and the Indian Ocean. Nutrients in wastewater may cause problems such as eutrophication in the Gulf if the exchange of water is low or if wastewater is discharged to the Gulf with insufficient treatment. © 2011 Desalination Publications. Source

Kohler S.J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lavonen E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Keucken A.,Vatten and Miljo i Vast AB VIVAB | Keucken A.,Lund University | And 5 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2016

Rising organic matter concentrations in surface waters in many Nordic countries require current drinking water treatment processes to be adapted. Accordingly, the use of a novel nanofiltration (NF) membrane was studied during a nine month period in pilot scale at a large drinking water treatment plant in Stockholm, Sweden. A chemically resistant hollow-fibre NF membrane was fed with full scale process water from a rapid sand filter after aluminum sulfate coagulation. The combined coagulation and NF process removed more than 90% of the incoming lake water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (8.7 mg C L-1), and 96% of the absorbance at 254 nm (A254) (0.28 cm-1 incoming absorbance). Including granulated active carbon GAC) filter, the complete pilot plant treatment process we observed decreases in DOC concentration (8.7-0.5 mg C L-1), SUVA (3.1-1.7 mg-1 L m-1), and the average nominal molecular mass (670-440 Da). Meanwhile, water hardness was practically unaffected (<20% reduction). Humic substances (HS) and biopolymers were almost completely eliminated (6510-140 and 260 to 10 μg C L-1 respectively) and low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals decreased substantially (880-190 μg C L-1). Differential excitation emission matrices (EEMs), which illustrate the removal of fluorescing organic matter (FDOM) over a range of excitation and emission wavelengths, demonstrate that coagulation removed 35 ± 2% of protein-like material and 65 ± 2% of longer emission wavelength, humic-like FDOM. The subsequent NF treatment was somewhat less selective but still preferentially targeted humic-like FDOM (83 ± 1%) to a larger extent than protein-like material (66 ± 3%). The high selectivity of organic matter during coagulation compared to NF separation was confirmed from analyses with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), as coagulation exclusively targeted oxidized organic matter components while NF removed both chemically reduced and oxidized components. DOC removal and change in DOC character in the GAC filters showed marked differences with slower saturation and more pronounced shifts in DOC character using NF as pre-treatment. Fluorescence derived parameters showed a similar decrease over time of GAC performance for the first 150 days but also indicated ongoing change of DOM character in the post NF GAC filtrate over time even after LC-OCD indicated steady state with respect to outgoing carbon. During our trial iron concentrations were low (<30 ppb) and thus A254 could be directly related to the concentration of HS (R2 = 0.9). The fluorescence derived freshness index (β:α) proved to be an excellent variable for estimating the fraction of HS present in all samples. Given the recommended limit of 4 mg L-1 for chemical oxygen demand (COD) for Swedish drinking water, coagulation will need to be supplemented with one or more treatment steps irrespective whether climate change will lead to drier or wetter conditions in order to maintain sufficient DOC removal with the current increasing concentrations in raw waters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Keucken A.,Vatten and Miljo i Vast AB VIVAB | Wang Y.,University of New South Wales | Tng K.H.,University of New South Wales | Leslie G.L.,University of New South Wales | And 3 more authors.
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2016

A full-scale inside out hollow fibre membrane module was operated in a pilot-scale water treatment plant in Sweden for a period of 12 months from August 2013 to July 2014. Liquid chromatography- organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) chromatogram indicated the membranes could effectively remove 86%of dissolved organic carbon and 92%of humic substances from the feedwater. Routine cleaning-in-place was conducted to remove any fouling material accumulated on the membranes. Autopsy of the aged membrane samples after 12 months' operation suggested no significant changes were detected for the membrane samples obtained from the top, middle and bottom sections of the membrane module and were similar to the virgin membrane sample. © IWA Publishing 2016. Source

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