Malmö, Sweden
Malmö, Sweden

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Liden A.,Lund University | Liden A.,Sweden Water Research | Liden A.,Sydvatten AB | Lavonen E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2016

Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration have become common methods to treat surface water for drinking water purposes. Common aims of a membrane step are removal of natural organic matter (NOM), softening or adding an extra microbiological or chemical barrier. In most cases, the membrane is considered a good disinfection step; commonly the viral removal is at least 4–log. To ensure a working disinfection, reliable integrity tests are required. In the present pilot study with a hollow fiber nanofilter, the membrane achieved a high NOM reduction, and the difference in parameters related to NOM quality before and after treatment proved to be useful indicators of integrity breaches. Changes in total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, UV-absorbance at 254 nm (UVA254) and fluorescence derived parameters in the permeate flow were related to leaking fibers. On average, UVA254 in the permeate was 3 times higher for a membrane with compromised fibers (0.041 cm−1) compared to an intact membrane (0.013 cm−1), while TOC was less than 2 times as high on average. Thus, this membrane had a higher reduction of UVA254 than TOC and the sensitivity for changes from leakage was higher. Therefore, it is suggested that UVA254 could be used as an indicator for membrane integrity. Additionally, there is a significant (P < 0.01) difference in fluorescence derived parameters between a leaking and an intact fiber, showing that fluorescence also has potential to be applied for online monitoring of membrane processes. During fiber failure, around 2% of the permeate flow passes through one single leaking fiber. The transport depends on the distance between the inflow and the leak, which in most cases are similar and most likely close to the middle of the fiber. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Biganzoli L.,Polytechnic of Milan | Ilyas A.,Lund University | Praagh M.V.,Lund University | Persson K.M.,Lund University | And 2 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2013

Waste incineration bottom ash fine fraction contains a significant amount of aluminium, but previous works have shown that current recovery options based on standard on-step Eddy Current Separation (ECS) have limited efficiency. In this paper, we evaluated the improvement in the efficiency of ECS by using an additional step of crushing and sieving. The efficiency of metallic Al recovery was quantified by measuring hydrogen gas production. The ash samples were also tested for total aluminium content with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). As an alternative to material recovery, we also investigated the possibility to convert residual metallic Al into useful energy, promoting H2 gas production by reacting metallic Al with water at high pH. The results show that the total aluminium concentration in the <4mm bottom ash fraction is on average 8% of the weight of the dry ash, with less than 15% of it being present in the metallic form. Of this latter, only 21% can be potentially recovered with ECS combined with crushing and sieving stages and subsequently recycled. For hydrogen production, using 10MNaOH at 1L/S ratio results in the release of 6-11l of H2 gas for each kilogram of fine dry ash, equivalent to an energy potential of 118kJ. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Keucken A.,Vatten and Miljo i Vast AB VIVAB | Wang Y.,University of New South Wales | Tng K.H.,University of New South Wales | Leslie G.L.,University of New South Wales | And 3 more authors.
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2016

A full-scale inside out hollow fibre membrane module was operated in a pilot-scale water treatment plant in Sweden for a period of 12 months from August 2013 to July 2014. Liquid chromatography- organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) chromatogram indicated the membranes could effectively remove 86%of dissolved organic carbon and 92%of humic substances from the feedwater. Routine cleaning-in-place was conducted to remove any fouling material accumulated on the membranes. Autopsy of the aged membrane samples after 12 months' operation suggested no significant changes were detected for the membrane samples obtained from the top, middle and bottom sections of the membrane module and were similar to the virgin membrane sample. © IWA Publishing 2016.


Bashitialshaaer R.,Lund University | Flyborg L.,Lund University | Persson K.M.,Lund University | Persson K.M.,Sydvatten AB
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2011

This study assesses the environmental effects of brine discharge into the Arabian/Persian Gulf and the option of mixing with wastewater to reduce the salt content in the discharge. The Arabian Gulf region occupies about 3.3% of the world area and has 1.0, 2.0 and 2.2% of the total world population in the years 1950, 2008 and 2050 (prognosis) respectively. The study area desalination capacities were obtained as 50, 40 and 45% of total world capacity at the end of 1996, 2008 and 2050 (prognosis) respectively. The trend towards increased recovery ratio in the desalination plants was considered as one important environmental factor. This will significantly increase the brine salt concentration from 1.5 to more than 2 times the seawater. The allocation of wastewater and brine is important for the Arabian Gulf. Straightforward water and salt mass balances were used to calculate residual flow, exchange flow and exchange time in the Arabian Gulf. For example, at zero wastewater discharge from 1996 to 2008, the net volume in the Arabian Gulf decreased by 7.4 million m3/d, the exchange volume increased by 69 million m3/d, and the mixing time decreased by 22.5 d. Discharging a mix of brine and wastewater in the Arabian Gulf reduces the water and salt exchange between the Gulf and the Indian Ocean. Nutrients in wastewater may cause problems such as eutrophication in the Gulf if the exchange of water is low or if wastewater is discharged to the Gulf with insufficient treatment. © 2011 Desalination Publications.


Bashitialshaaer R.,Lund University | Persson K.M.,SYDVATTEN AB
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2011

Desalination can be a cost-effective way to produce fresh water and possibly electricity. The Gaza Strip has had a complex hydro-political situation formany years. Gaza is bordered by theMediterranean sea in the west, by Israel to the north and east and by Egypt in the south.Water and electricity consumption in the Gaza Strip is expected to increase in the future due to the increasing population. In this paper, a solution for Sinai and the Gaza Strip is suggested involving the building of a joint power and desalination plant, located in Egypt close to the border with Gaza. The suggested joint projectwould increase drinking water supply by 500,000 m 3/d and the power supply by 500 MW, of which two thirds is suggested to be used in Gaza and one third in Sinai. The present lack of electricity and water in Gaza could be erased by such a project. But Egypt will probably gainmore: morewater and electricity for the future development of Sinai and Gaza; a significant valuewill be added to the sale of Egyptian natural gas; more employment opportunities for Sinai people; the domesticmarket for operation andmaintenance of desalination plants can be boosted by the suggested project; Egypt may naturally and peacefully increase its cooperation with and presence in Gaza, which should lead to increased security. This type of project could also get international support and can be a role-model for cooperation and trust-building between neighbours. © 2011 IWA Publishing.


Kohler S.J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lavonen E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Keucken A.,Vatten and Miljo i Vast AB VIVAB | Keucken A.,Lund University | And 5 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2016

Rising organic matter concentrations in surface waters in many Nordic countries require current drinking water treatment processes to be adapted. Accordingly, the use of a novel nanofiltration (NF) membrane was studied during a nine month period in pilot scale at a large drinking water treatment plant in Stockholm, Sweden. A chemically resistant hollow-fibre NF membrane was fed with full scale process water from a rapid sand filter after aluminum sulfate coagulation. The combined coagulation and NF process removed more than 90% of the incoming lake water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (8.7 mg C L-1), and 96% of the absorbance at 254 nm (A254) (0.28 cm-1 incoming absorbance). Including granulated active carbon GAC) filter, the complete pilot plant treatment process we observed decreases in DOC concentration (8.7-0.5 mg C L-1), SUVA (3.1-1.7 mg-1 L m-1), and the average nominal molecular mass (670-440 Da). Meanwhile, water hardness was practically unaffected (<20% reduction). Humic substances (HS) and biopolymers were almost completely eliminated (6510-140 and 260 to 10 μg C L-1 respectively) and low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals decreased substantially (880-190 μg C L-1). Differential excitation emission matrices (EEMs), which illustrate the removal of fluorescing organic matter (FDOM) over a range of excitation and emission wavelengths, demonstrate that coagulation removed 35 ± 2% of protein-like material and 65 ± 2% of longer emission wavelength, humic-like FDOM. The subsequent NF treatment was somewhat less selective but still preferentially targeted humic-like FDOM (83 ± 1%) to a larger extent than protein-like material (66 ± 3%). The high selectivity of organic matter during coagulation compared to NF separation was confirmed from analyses with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), as coagulation exclusively targeted oxidized organic matter components while NF removed both chemically reduced and oxidized components. DOC removal and change in DOC character in the GAC filters showed marked differences with slower saturation and more pronounced shifts in DOC character using NF as pre-treatment. Fluorescence derived parameters showed a similar decrease over time of GAC performance for the first 150 days but also indicated ongoing change of DOM character in the post NF GAC filtrate over time even after LC-OCD indicated steady state with respect to outgoing carbon. During our trial iron concentrations were low (<30 ppb) and thus A254 could be directly related to the concentration of HS (R2 = 0.9). The fluorescence derived freshness index (β:α) proved to be an excellent variable for estimating the fraction of HS present in all samples. Given the recommended limit of 4 mg L-1 for chemical oxygen demand (COD) for Swedish drinking water, coagulation will need to be supplemented with one or more treatment steps irrespective whether climate change will lead to drier or wetter conditions in order to maintain sufficient DOC removal with the current increasing concentrations in raw waters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Liden A.,Lund University | Liden A.,Sweden Water Research AB | Liden A.,Sydvatten AB | Persson K.M.,Lund University | And 2 more authors.
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Membrane technology, i.e., ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, is growing in popularity, as it is a space efficient alternative for surface water treatment. Two types of hollow fiber membranes were tested in a fully equipped and automated pilot at a Swedish water treatment plant. Raw water was treated by a nanofilter and by coagulation before an ultrafilter. Operation parameters recorded during these trials have been the basis for cost estimations and assessments of environmental impact, comparing the two membrane modules to the existing conventional treatment. The membranes required lower chemical consumption, but led to increased costs from membrane modules and a higher energy demand. Compared to the existing treatment (0.33 €/m3), the operational costs were estimated to increase 6% for ultrafiltration and 30% for nanofiltration. Considering the low emissions from Nordic energy production, the membrane processes would lower the environmental impact, including factors such as climate and ecosystem health. Greenhouse gas emissions would decrease from 161 g CO2-eq/m3 of the existing process, to 127 g CO2-eq/m3 or 83 g CO2-eq/m3 for ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, respectively. Lower chemical consumption and less pollution from the sludge leaving the water treatment plant lead to lower impacts on the environment. © 2016 by the authors.


Luhrig K.,Lund University | Luhrig K.,Sydvatten AB | Canback B.,Lund University | Paul C.J.,Lund University | And 4 more authors.
Microbes and Environments | Year: 2015

Next-generation sequencing of the V1-V2 and V3 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene generated a total of 674,116 reads that described six distinct bacterial biofilm communities from both water meters and pipes. A high degree of reproducibility was demonstrated for the experimental and analytical work-flow by analyzing the communities present in parallel water meters, the rare occurrence of biological replicates within a working drinking water distribution system. The communities observed in water meters from households that did not complain about their drinking water were defined by sequences representing Proteobacteria (82–87%), with 22–40% of all sequences being classified as Sphingomonadaceae. However, a water meter biofilm community from a household with consumer reports of red water and flowing water containing elevated levels of iron and manganese had fewer sequences representing Proteobacteria (44%); only 0.6% of all sequences were classified as Sphingomonadaceae; and, in contrast to the other water meter communities, markedly more sequences represented Nitrospira and Pedomicrobium. The biofilm communities in pipes were distinct from those in water meters, and contained sequences that were identified as Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Desulfovibrio, and Sulfuricurvum. The approach employed in the present study resolved the bacterial diversity present in these biofilm communities as well as the differences that occurred in biofilms within a single distribution system, and suggests that next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons can show changes in bacterial biofilm communities associated with different water qualities. © 2015 Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

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