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Nabipour I.,University of Sydney | Sambrook P.N.,University of Sydney | Blyth F.M.,University of Sydney | Janu M.R.,Sydney South West Pathology Service | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2011

Serum uric acid (UA) is a strong endogenous antioxidant. Since oxidative stress has been linked to osteoporosis, we examined the association between serum UA levels and bone mineral density (BMD), prevalent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and laboratory measures such as calcitropic hormones and bone turnover marker levels. This cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1705 community-dwelling men aged 70 years or over who participated in the baseline part of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a population-based study of older men in Sydney, Australia. BMD at all sites was significantly higher among men with serum UA levels above the group median than among men with UA levels below the median. In multiple regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders, serum UA remained associated with BMD at all sites (β = 0.12 to 0.14, p < .001), serum calcium (β = 0.11, p = .001), parathyroid hormone (β = 0.09, p = .002), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (β = 0.09, p = .005), and was negatively associated with urinary excretion amino-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β = -0.09, p = .006). Overall, serum UA accounted for 1.0% to 1.44% of the variances in BMD (R2 = 0.10 to 0.22). In multiple logistic regression analyses, above-median serum UA levels were associated with a lower prevalence of osteoporosis at the femoral neck [odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.81, p = .010) and lumbar spine (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.86, p = .016) and a lower prevalence of vertebral (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.91, p = .015) and nonvertebral (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.29-0.89, p = .018) fractures. In conclusion, higher serum UA levels are associated with higher BMD at all skeletal sites and with a lower prevalence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in older men. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Source

Yong J.L.C.,Sydney South West Pathology Service | Killingsworth M.C.,University of Western Sydney | Lai K.,University of New South Wales
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease | Year: 2013

Purpose: The pathological manifestations in the kidneys in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are commonly known as lupus nephritis. We have studied the pathological changes in renal biopsies from 59 cases of clinically diagnosed SLE obtained over a 15-year period from a racially diverse population in the Sydney metropolitan area. Our aim was to see if there was any regional variation in the morphological changes. Methods: Renal biopsy changes were assessed by routine light, immunofuorescence, and electron microscopy. We used the modified 1974 World Health Organization classification of lupus nephritis to classify cases into six classes. Disease severity was assessed by age, sex, and across racial groups, including Caucasian, Asian, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian sub continental, South American, and Pacific Islander. Results: Our analysis showed that cases of lupus nephritis contributed 5.4% of our total renal biopsies examined over a 15-year period. The overall incidence of biopsy-proven cases was 0.49 per 100,000 per year. The ages of our patients ranged from 10 to 79 years, with most below 50 years of age. A female to male ratio was determined to be 4.4:1. There was no relationship to ethnicity, nor was there a relationship between any of these parameters and the class or severity of disease. Conclusion: Renal biopsy with multimodal morphological and immunohistochemical analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of the level of disease in lupus nephritis. Based on this approach we have identifed an incidence rate for southwest Sydney that is slightly higher but comparable to that found in a similar study from the United Kingdom. We also found that there was no relationship between sex, race, or age and severity of disease. © 2013 yong et al Publisher and licensee dove medical press ltd. Source

Chang Y.-S.,Liverpool Hospital | Van Hal S.J.,Sydney South West Pathology Service | Spencer P.M.,Liverpool Hospital | Gosbell I.B.,Sydney South West Pathology Service | And 2 more authors.
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2010

Objective: To compare the patient characteristics, clinical features and outcomes of adult patients hospitalised with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and seasonal influenza. Design and setting: Retrospective medical record review of all patients admitted to Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, with laboratory-confirmed influenza from the initiation of the "PROTECT" phase of the pandemic response on 17 June until the end of our study period on 31 July 2009. Main outcome measures: Severity of illness; requirement for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and/or invasive ventilation; mortality. Results: Sixty-four adults were admitted to Liverpool Hospital with influenza, 48 with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and 16 with seasonal influenza. Thirteen patients were admitted to the ICU. Seven required invasive ventilation, with 2 patients requiring ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Five patients died (mortality rate, 8%) with two deaths occurring after the study period. Patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza were younger and less likely to be immunocompromised than patients with seasonal influenza. However, the clinical features of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and seasonal influenza were similar. Conclusions: Our findings show that the clinical course and outcomes of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus are comparable to those of the current circulating seasonal influenza in Sydney. The high number of hospital admissions reflects a high incidence of disease in the community rather than an enhanced virulence of the novel pandemic influenza virus. Source

Chavada R.,Sydney South West Pathology Service | Kok J.,Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research | van Hal S.,Sydney South West Pathology Service | Chen S.C.-A.,Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Fungal peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy with the majority of patients ceasing PD permanently. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors and clinical associations that may discriminate between fungal from bacterial peritonitis. Methods: We retrospectively identified episodes of fungal peritonitis from 2001-2010 in PD patients at Liverpool and Westmead Hospitals (Australia). Fungal peritonitis cases were matched in a 1:2 ratio with patients with bacterial peritonitis from each institution's dialysis registry, occurring closest in time to the fungal episode. Patient demographic, clinical and outcome data were obtained from the medical records. Results: Thirty-nine episodes of fungal peritonitis (rate of 0.02 episodes per patient-year of dialysis) were matched with 78 episodes of bacterial peritonitis. Candida species were the commonest pathogens (35/39; 90% episodes) with Candida albicans (37%), Candida parapsilosis (32%) and Candida glabrata (13%) the most frequently isolated species. Compared to bacterial peritonitis, fungal peritonitis patients had received PD for significantly longer (1133 vs. 775 catheter-days; p = 0.016), were more likely to have had previous episodes of bacterial peritonitis (51% vs. 10%; p = 0.01), and to have received prior antibacterial therapy (51% vs. 10%; p = 0.01). Patients with fungal peritonitis were less likely to have fever and abdominal pain on presentation, but had higher rates of PD catheter removal (79% vs. 22%; p&0.005), and permanent transfer to haemodialysis (87% vs. 24%; p&0.005). Hospital length of stay was significantly longer in patients with fungal peritonitis (26.1 days vs. 12.6 days; p = 0.017), but the all-cause 30-day mortality rate was similar in both groups. Fluconazole was a suitable empiric antifungal agent; with no Candida resistance detected. Conclusion: Prompt recognition of clinical risk factors, initiation of antifungal therapy and removal of PD catheters are key considerations in optimising outcomes. © 2011 Chavada et al. Source

Van Hal S.J.,Sydney South West Pathology Service | Van Hal S.J.,University of Western Sydney | Wehrhahn M.C.,Sydney South West Pathology Service | Barbagiannakos T.,Sydney South West Pathology Service | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

The best screening method for detecting heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) remains unclear. Using population analysis profiling utilizing the area under the concentration-time curve (PAP-AUC) as the gold standard, we screened 458 consecutive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bloodstream isolates to determine the most accurate and cost-effective testing strategy to detect the presence of heteroresistance. All isolates were also tested using the macromethod Etest (MET) and glycopeptide resistance detection (GRD) Etest. The MIC was determined by several methods, including standard vancomycin Etest, vancomycin broth microdilution (BMD), and Vitek2 testing. Fifty-five (12%) hVISA and 4 (1%) VISA isolates were detected by PAP-AUC. Compared to PAP-AUC, the sensitivities and specificities of MET, GRD Etest, BMD (using a MIC cutoff of ≥2 mg/liter), and standard vancomycin Etest (using a MIC cutoff of ≥2 mg/liter) were 89 and 55%, 71 and 94%, 82 and 97%, and 71 and 94%, respectively. Combination testing increased the overall testing accuracy by reducing the number of false-positive results. Cost was determined predominately by the number of PAP-AUC runs required following a screening assay. The most cost-effective strategy was BMD (using a MIC cutoff of ≥2 μg/ml) as a standalone assay or in combination with PAP-AUC, provided that BMD testing was batched. GRD Etest remained an alternative, with 71% of hVISA isolates detected. Prevalence influenced both cost and test accuracy, with results remaining unchanged for hVISA prevalences of up to 25%. Implementation of any testing strategy would therefore be dependent on balancing cost with accuracy in a given population and clinical context. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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