Sydney Olympic Park Authority

Sydney, Australia

Sydney Olympic Park Authority

Sydney, Australia
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Jenner B.,University of Wollongong | French K.,University of Wollongong | Oxenham K.,Sydney Olympic Park Authority | Major R.E.,College Street
Emu | Year: 2011

Habitat modification through urbanisation and the alteration of the natural flows of rivers is a major contributor to the global decline of birds occupying specialist habitats. We measured the extent and pattern of change in range and relative abundance over 25 years of the White-fronted Chat, a small passerine that is predominantly found in saltmarsh. A particular focus of the study was the population in the Sydney region, which is now restricted to two locations in which we measured the response of birds to human disturbance. A significant decline of 65% in the reporting rate of White-fronted Chats was observed over the 25 years, with a decline of 44% over the last 10 years in New South Wales. Historical analysis of the White-fronted Chat in the Sydney region revealed a change in geographical distribution, with the current population now confined to only two of 56 former locations. Surveys of these locations concluded that in 2008, nine White-fronted Chats remained at Newington Nature Reserve and ∼20 at Towra Point Nature Reserve. Measurements of the distance at which foraging birds flushed from an approaching observer suggest that this species is more sensitive to human disturbance than other co-occurring species. This study documents the decline of a species listed in 2010 as vulnerable under the New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995, and confirms the need for recovery planning to prevent the further loss of populations, particularly those in the highly urbanised coastal zone. © Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union 2011.


Xing W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.-H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Wu Z.,University of Technology, Sydney | And 4 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2010

In this study, laboratory-scale anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactors (AFBBRs) using granular activated carbon as bedding material were employed for treating a primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE) with or without refractory organic pollutants (ROPs). A new starch based flocculant (NSBF) combining a nature starch based cationic flocculants and trace nutrients was prepared and applied in the AFBBR. The impact of NSBF on the performance of AFBBR was mainly evaluated in terms of organic and nutrient removal and microbial activity. Membrane fouling based on critical flux was assessed when the bioreactor used as pretreatment for microfiltration. The results indicated that the addition of NSBF in AFBBR (NSBF-AFBBR) not only attained improved organic (9-10%) and nutrient removal (10-20%), higher biomass growth (3.0 gbiomass/LGAC) and net bed expansion (18 cm), but also doubled the critical flux (from 15 L/m3 h to 30 L/m3 h) in the microfiltration system. In addition, NSBF-AFBBR could retain 10% better DOC removal efficiency at different recirculation rates for treating PTSE with ROPs. When increasing organic loading rate from 21.6 kg COD/m3 d to 43.2 kg COD/m3 d, NSBF-AFBBR achieved comparatively constant organic removal of 55% whereas the efficiency in AFBBR alone decreased dramatically from 47% to 34%. Thus, NSBF could act as a performance enhancer for AFBBR. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Pham T.T.N.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Dang H.P.D.,University of Technology, Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2011

Recycled water is a valuable resource that has potential to free up potable water supplies and recharge systems while improving the environment. Recycled water for washing machine could be one of the options as new end use of recycled water to alleviate the demand on existing and limited water supplies. This paper summarizes the findings of a research survey in Sydney, Australia to explore the attitudes and opinions of community towards the use of recycled water for different purposes, especially for the washing machine. The survey showed that 97% of the respondents were aware of the persisting water shortage problem while more than 60% of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing clothes. This paper exposes the basic concern of participants for using recycled water in washing machine. Health issue was found as the most concerns of the community. The survey also presents the further conditions to be considered for using recycled water for washing machine according to the participants' opinions. Correlation between knowledge and attitudes of respondents was also found in this survey. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Xing W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Listowski A.,Sydney Olympic Park Authority | Cullum P.,Activated Carbon Technologies Pty Ltd.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

An integrated fluidized bed bioreactor (iFBBR) was designed to incorporate an aerobic sponge FBBR (ASB-FBBR) into an anoxic granular activated carbon FBBR (GAC-FBBR). This iFBBR was operated with and without adding a new starch based flocculant (NSBF) to treat synthetic primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE). The NSBF contains starch based cationic flocculants and trace nutrients. The results indicate that the iFBBR with NSBF addition could remove more than 93% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 61% total nitrogen (T-N) and 60% total phosphorus (T-P) at just a very short hydraulic retention time of 50min. The optimum frequency of adding NSBF to the iFFBR is four times per day. As a pretreatment to microfiltration, the iFFBR could increase 5L/m2h of critical flux thus reducing the membrane fouling. In addition, better microbial activity was also observed with high DO consumption (>66%) and specific oxygen uptake rate (>35mg O2/gVSSh). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Mainali B.,University of Technology, Sydney | Pham T.T.N.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.,University of Technology, Sydney | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n=478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (χ2=527.40, df=3; p=0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r=0.43, p=0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (χ2=52.73, df=6; p=0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Chen Z.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Listowski A.,Sydney Olympic Park Authority | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

This paper aims to put forward several management alternatives regarding the application of recycled water for household laundry in Sydney. Based on different recycled water treatment techniques such as microfiltration (MF), granular activated carbon (GAC) or reverse osmosis (RO), and types of washing machines (WMs), five alternatives were proposed as follows: (1) do nothing scenario; (2) MF. +. existing WMs; (3) MF. +. new WMs; (4) MF-GAC. +. existing WMs; and (5) MF-RO. +. existing WMs. Accordingly, a comprehensive quantitative assessment on the trade-off among a variety of issues (e.g., engineering feasibility, initial cost, energy consumption, supply flexibility and water savings) was performed over the alternatives. This was achieved by a computer-based multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using the rank order weight generation together with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) outranking techniques. Particularly, the generated 10,000 combinations of weights via Monte Carlo simulation were able to significantly reduce the man-made errors of single fixed set of weights because of its objectivity and high efficiency. To illustrate the methodology, a case study on Rouse Hill Development Area (RHDA), Sydney, Australia was carried out afterwards. The study was concluded by highlighting the feasibility of using highly treated recycled water for existing and new washing machines. This could provide a powerful guidance for sustainable water reuse management in the long term. However, more detailed field trials and investigations are still needed to effectively understand, predict and manage the impact of selected recycled water for new end use alternatives. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Xing W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Listowski A.,Sydney Olympic Park Authority | Cullum P.,Activated Carbon Technologies Pty Ltd.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

A specific integrated fluidized bed bioreactor (iFBBR) was optimized in terms of organic loading rate (OLR), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and frequency of new sustainable flocculant (NSBF) addition for primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE) treatment. It was observed that iFBBR achieved the best performance with the operating conditions of 4times/day NSBF addition, HRT of 90min and OLR of 8.64kgCOD/daym 3. The removal efficiencies were found to be more than 93% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 61% of total nitrogen (T-N) and 60% of total phosphorus (T-P). iFBBR as pretreatment of submerged microfiltration (SMF) is successful in increasing the critical flux and reducing the membrane fouling. NSBF-iFBBR-SMF hybrid system led to very high organic removal efficiency with an average DOC removal of 97% from synthetic PTSE. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Nguyen T.T.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Listowski A.,Sydney Olympic Park Authority | Li J.X.,CAS Shanghai Advanced Research Institute
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

The membrane bioreactor system (MBR) with pre-treatment of sponge tray bioreactor (STB) was evaluated at different operating conditions for treating primary treated sewage (PTS). The result indicated the successful removal of DOC with the efficiency of higher than 95%. The highest nutrient removal efficiency of 83.6% (NH 4-N) and 75.5% (PO 4-P) was observed at sludge concentration of 330mg/L. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of activated sludge in MBR kept increasing up to 6mgO 2/gVSSh during stage IV. The sludge volume index (SVI) of less than 100mL/g during the operation indicated the good settling property of the sludge. At highest sludge concentration of 5g/L, trans-membrane pressure (TMP) was increasing dramatically during first 15d up to 25kPa; however it was only 6kPa at lower sludge concentrations. It is concluded that the system showed the highest performance at stage III with sludge concentration of 330mg/L. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Nguyen T.T.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Johnston A.,University of Technology, Sydney | Listowski A.,Sydney Olympic Park Authority
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

The effects of polyurethane sponge size and type on the performance of an up-flow sponge bioreactor were studied using different sponge cube sizes (1 × 1 × 1 cm, 2 × 2 × 2 cm and 3 × 3 × 3 cm) and types of sponge (S28-30/45R, S28-30/60R, S28-30/80R and S28-30/90R). The reactors were operated under anaerobic conditions in an early stage and an aerobic condition in a latter stage. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the organic and nutrient removal rates between sponge types. The medium size sponge (2 × 2 × 2 cm) had the best performance in terms of both biomass growth and pollutants removal. Under anaerobic condition, the COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies were up to 70%, 45% and 55%, respectively, and significantly improved under aerobic conditions (e.g. >90% TOC, 95% COD, 65% TN and 90% TP). The external biomass grew faster under anaerobic conditions while internal biomass was dominant under aerobic condition. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Tram VO P.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Zhou J.L.,University of Technology, Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

To tackle current water insecurity concerns, wastewater reclamation and reuse have appeared as a promising candidate to conserve the valuable fresh water sources while increasing the efficiency of material utilization. Climate change, nevertheless, poses both opportunities and threats to the wastewater reclamation industry. Whereas it elevates the social perception on water-related issues and fosters an emerging water-reuse market, climate change simultaneously presents adverse impacts on the water reclamation scheme, either directly or indirectly. These effects were studied fragmentally in separate realms. Hence, this paper aims to link these studies for providing a thorough understanding about the consequences of the climate change on the wastewater reclamation and reuse. It initially summarizes contemporary treatment processes and their reuse purposes before carrying out a systematic analysis of available findings. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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