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Epalinges, Switzerland

Pantaleo G.,University of Lausanne | Pantaleo G.,Swiss Vaccine Research Institute | Esteban M.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Jacobs B.,Arizona State University | Tartaglia J.,Sanofi S.A.
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2010

Purpose of review: In this review, we will provide the scientific rationale for the use of poxvirus vectors in the field of HIV vaccines, the immunological profile of the vaccine-induced immune responses, an update on the current use of poxvirus vector-based vaccines in HIV vaccine clinical trials, and the development of new modified poxvirus vectors with improved immunological profile. Recent Findings: An Ad5-HIV vaccine was tested in a phase IIb clinical trial (known as the Step trial). Vaccinations in the Step trial were discontinued because the vaccine did not show any effect on acquisition of infection and on viral load. After the disappointing failure of the Step trial, the field of HIV vaccine has regained enthusiasm and vigour due to the promising protective effect observed in the phase III efficacy trial (known as RV-144) performed in Thailand which has tested a poxvirus-gp120 combination. Summary: The RV-144 phase III has provided for the first time evidence that an HIV vaccine can prevent HIV infection. The results from the RV-144 trial are providing the scientific rationale for the future development of the HIV vaccine field and for designing future efficacy trials. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Koehli S.,University of Basel | Naeher D.,University of Basel | Galati-Fournier V.,University of Basel | Zehn D.,Swiss Vaccine Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

T-cell receptor affinity for self-antigen has an important role in establishing self-tolerance. Three transgenic mouse strains expressing antigens of variable affinity for the OVA transgenic-I T-cell receptor were generated to address how TCR affinity affects the efficiency of negative selection, the ability to prime an autoimmune response, and the elimination of the relevant target cell. Mice expressing antigens with an affinity just above the negative selection threshold exhibited the highest risk of developing experimental autoimmune diabetes. The data demonstrate that close to the affinity threshold for negative selection, sufficient numbers of self-reactive T cells escape deletion and create an increased risk for the development of autoimmunity.

King C.,University of Basel | Koehli S.,University of Basel | Hausmann B.,University of Basel | Schmaler M.,University of Basel | And 2 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2012

The strength of interactions between T cell receptors and the peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) directly modulates T cell fitness, clonal expansion, and acquisition of effector properties. Here we show that asymmetric T cell division is an important mechanistic link between increased signal strength, effector differentiation, and the ability to induce tissue pathology. Recognition of pMHC above a threshold affinity drove responding T cells into asymmetric cell division. The ensuing proximal daughters underwent extensive division and differentiated into short-lived effector cells expressing the integrin VLA-4, allowing the activated T cell to infiltrate and mediate destruction of peripheral target tissues. In contrast, T cells activated by below-threshold antigens underwent symmetric division, leading to abortive clonal expansion and failure to fully differentiate into tissue-infiltrating effector cells. Antigen affinity and asymmetric division are important factors that regulate fate specification in CD8+ T cells and predict the potential of a self-reactive T cell to mediate tissue pathology. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Herderschee J.,University of Lausanne | Fenwick C.,University of Lausanne | Pantaleo G.,University of Lausanne | Pantaleo G.,Swiss Vaccine Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2015

During evolution, the immune system has diversified to protect the host from the extremely wide array of possible pathogens. Until recently, immune responses were dissected by use of global approaches and bulk tools, averaging responses across samples and potentially missing particular contributions of individual cells. This is a strongly limiting factor, considering that initial immune responses are likely to be triggered by a restricted number of cells at the vanguard of host defenses. The development of novel, single-cell technologies is a major innovation offering great promise for basic and translational immunology with the potential to overcome some of the limitations of traditional research tools, such as polychromatic flow cytometry or microscopy-based methods. At the transcriptional level, much progress has been made in the fields of microfluidics and single-cell RNA sequencing. At the protein level, mass cytometry already allows the analysis of twice as many parameters as flow cytometry. In this review, we explore the basis and outcome of immune-cell diversity, how genetically identical cells become functionally different, and the consequences for the exploration of host-immune defense responses. We will highlight the advantages, trade-offs, and potential pitfalls of emerging, single-cell-based technologies and how they provide unprecedented detail of immune responses. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

Gerlach C.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Van Heijst J.W.J.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Swart E.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Sie D.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2010

The mechanism by which the immune system produces effector and memory T cells is largely unclear. To allow a large-scale assessment of the development of single naive T cells into different subsets, we have developed a technology that introduces unique genetic tags (barcodes) into naive T cells. By comparing the barcodes present in antigen-specific effector and memory T cell populations in systemic and local infection models, at different anatomical sites, and for TCR-pMHC interactions of different avidities, we demonstrate that under all conditions tested, individual naive T cells yield both effector and memory CD8+ T cell progeny. This indicates that effector and memory fate decisions are not determined by the nature of the priming antigen-presenting cell or the time of T cell priming. Instead, for both low and high avidity T cells, individual naive T cells have multiple fates and can differentiate into effector and memory T cell subsets. © 2010 Gerlach et al.

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