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Angst U.M.,ETH Zurich | Angst U.M.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection
Concrete Solutions - Proceedings of Concrete Solutions, 6th International Conference on Concrete Repair, 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper reviews the established conceptual approach of predicting initiation of chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. The low predictive power of the current approach is illustrated with help of recent field data for the chloride threshold value. Limitations and particular gaps of knowledge are highlighted, and issues urgently needing further research are identified. This includes the production process and the resulting microstructure of the reinforcing steel. Most of our practical long-term experience from real structures relates to systems where cold worked steel and Portland cement were used. During the last few decades, however, a transition to thermomechanically strengthened reinforcing steels and to blended cements occurred. There is indication that this drastically affects the corrosion behaviour. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Angst U.M.,ETH Zurich | Angst U.M.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection | Polder R.,TNO | Polder R.,Technical University of Delft
Cement and Concrete Research | Year: 2014

The concept of variability is increasingly considered in service life predictions. This paper reports experimental data on the spatial distribution of chloride in uncracked concrete subjected to homogeneous exposure. Chloride concentrations were measured with potentiometric sensors embedded in concrete exposed to chloride ingress by cyclic wetting and drying. The sensors allow highly localised, non-destructive measurements. Six different concrete mixes were tested, each with more than 20 sensors embedded within a plane at constant depth. The resulting dataset is discussed with respect to causes for the observed spatial variability of chloride as well as implications for service life predictions and experimental methods. It is concluded that the observed spatial chloride variability is a true property of chloride penetration into concrete and not an uncertainty arising from limited measurement precision. The primary cause was identified to be the presence of coarse aggregates rather than w/c ratio, cement type or exposure conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Angst U.M.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection | Buchler M.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection | Schlumpf J.,Sika Services AG | Marazzani B.,Sika Technology AG
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions | Year: 2015

Long-term, well documented field experience with organic corrosion-inhibiting admixtures for reinforced concrete is scarce. The present paper contributes to closing this gap of knowledge by reporting 18 years of field performance of a proprietary inhibitor formulation based on alkanolamines (Sika FerroGard 901). Reinforced concrete elements were exposed to chloride-bearing splash water at a road in the Swiss Alps. Periodically, chloride profiles were determined and the specimens were monitored by galvanic current measurements, potential mapping, and electrical concrete resistance measurements. After 18 years, additional electrochemical measurements were undertaken on-site and selected zones of reinforcement steel were visually inspected. While in the reference concrete, corrosion initiated after approx. 8–9 years at a cover depth of 15 mm, the reinforcing steel in the concrete with inhibitor was after 18 years still essentially free from corrosion (at identical cover depth). Thus, under the conditions of the present work, the corrosion inhibitor increased the time to initiation of chloride-induced reinforcing steel corrosion by a factor of approx. 2. © 2015 RILEM


Angst U.M.,ETH Zurich | Angst U.M.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection | Elsener B.,ETH Zurich | Elsener B.,University of Cagliari
Corrosion Science | Year: 2014

In this work, a novel method for the determination of instantaneous corrosion rates icorr is proposed. It relies on recording the current response in the time domain upon imposing an AC voltage signal, and a computational procedure to remove non-faradaic currents and to analyse the data. The method was applied to steel in stirred, unstirred, and sand-filled 1M KCl; the resulting icorr compared well with different conventional techniques. The proposed method is robust, non-destructive and fast. In addition to icorr, it provides also an estimate of the capacitance and Tafel slopes (thus, no assumption on constant B is required). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Hornbostel K.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Angst U.M.,ETH Zurich | Angst U.M.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection | Elsener B.,ETH Zurich | And 3 more authors.
Cement and Concrete Research | Year: 2015

An experimental setup was designed to simulate the conditions for chloride-induced macro-cell corrosion, in which small anodes are located in a large network of cathodes. The overall aim of the present study was to assess whether measuring the bulk resistivity of reinforced concrete/mortar can give sufficient information about the resistance between anode and cathode inside a macro-cell. Measurements were executed in mortar specimens with high and low resistivities. Both the resistance in the simulated corrosion cells and the bulk resistivity of the mortar mixtures were determined. A comparison of the results showed no direct correlation. This indicates that the common practice of comparing bulk resistivity with corrosion rate may not be sufficient to characterize the corrosion process of chloride induced macro-cell corrosion. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Angst U.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection | Angst U.,ETH Zurich | Buchler M.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection
Materials and Corrosion | Year: 2015

The well-known Stern-Geary equation was derived on the basis of the theory by Wagner and Traud and relies on the so-called mixed potential of an electrode subject to uniform corrosion. Nevertheless, it is common practice to apply the linear polarization method to determine instantaneous corrosion rates in situations of galvanic corrosion. In the present work, the applicability of the Stern-Geary equation to galvanic corrosion was in detail discussed both with help of theoretical considerations and experimental measurements. The primary reason why the application of the Stern-Geary equation to galvanic corrosion is fundamentally incorrect is the fact that a well-defined mixed potential does for galvanic elements not exist. In this work, equations were derived that allow a correct calculation of the corrosion rate for galvanic cells. However, the required variables can, in usual practical situations, not be measured. Application of the Stern-Geary equation to galvanic cells is in the literature claimed (or assumed) to yield adequate results. An explanation for this apparent applicability was identified in the fact that two major errors have a compensating effect so that they tend to cancel each other out. The extent to which this is possible depends strongly on the actual conditions such as the geometry of the galvanic cell as well as on the position of the counter and the reference electrode (RE). Nevertheless, since this apparent applicability is owing to specific conditions rather than a fundamental applicability of the method, further research is clearly needed to characterize these conditions and their limits in detail. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Segui Femenias Y.,ETH Zurich | Angst U.,ETH Zurich | Angst U.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection | Caruso F.,ETH Zurich | And 2 more authors.
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions | Year: 2016

Chloride ingress can lead to serious degradation of various materials and structures. Continuous measurements of local chloride concentrations is thus of uttermost importance for laboratory research, monitoring of structures, and predictions of the residual life span for the most common building materials. This work investigates the applicability of Ag/AgCl ion-selective electrodes for the non-destructive continuous measurement of local chloride concentrations in concrete and stone when exposed to chloride-bearing environments such as seawater. The work studies the stability of Ag/AgCl ion-selective electrodes in neutral and alkaline solutions and the sensitivity to the main interfering ions coming from the environment and from the material itself. The results indicate negligible interference from fluoride, sulfate, and hydroxyl but considerable from bromide and sulfide. In chloride-free alkaline solutions, Ag/AgCl ion-selective electrodes are not stable over time, but—upon chloride arrival—they permit again reliable measurements of the chloride concentration. The results concerning interference are discussed by taking into account typical exposure environments and it is concluded that the ion-selective electrodes can satisfactorily be used to monitor chloride concentrations in built structures made out of concrete or stone. © 2015, RILEM.


Buchler M.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection
Materials Performance | Year: 2015

According to ISO 15589-1, the effectiveness of cathodic protection (CP) for a buried steel structure is demonstrated by measuring the IR-free potential of the steel-to-soil interface. The physical-chemical significance of this criterion is discussed by means of theoretical considerations, numerical simulation, and comparisons with field data. The importance of mass transport at the steel surface is also considered. It is hoped this perspective will stimulate further discussion on the true nature of CP.


Buchler M.,Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection
Australasian Corrosion Association Annual Conference: Corrosion and Prevention 2015, ACA 2015 | Year: 2015

Cathodic protection has proved to be an efficient way to control corrosion and increase the service life of pipelines. While there is general agreement on the effectiveness of cathodic protection, there is a widespread discussion with respect to the mechanism of protection, the significance of the protection criteria, the methodology of their assessment and their interpretation. Moreover, there are significant differences in the application of these criteria, despite AS2832.1 and ISO 15589-1 that describe clear and strict requirements. The physical-chemical meaning of the protection criteria is discussed and a model for the mechanisms involved in cathodic protection is proposed. The fundamental applicability of the model concept is validated based on the comparison with extensive field data. The extension of the concept allows explaining the mechanisms involved in a.c. and d.c. interference. The consequences on protection criteria under these conditions are elaborated and compared to experimental data. Based on this analysis a possible explanation for the failure of cathodically protected structures is presented and a new methodology for assessing protection is proposed.


Based on laboratory studies and model concepts, a profound understanding of the involved processes in ac corrosion and the required limits has been obtained in the last years. But there was no information whether these thresholds can be effectively applied to pipelines or whether operational constraints make their implementation impossible. Therefore, an extensive field test was carried out. Thereby, the relevance of the laboratory tests for field application could be demonstrated and all threshold values were confirmed. Detailed analysis made it possible to explain the observed threshold values based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. The results summarized in the present work are the basis for the normative work defining the thresholds for the operation conditions of cathodically protected pipelines. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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