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Lausanne, Switzerland

Excoffier L.,University of Bern | Lischer H.E.L.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
Molecular Ecology Resources

We present here a new version of the Arlequin program available under three different forms: a Windows graphical version (W. inarl35), a console version of Arlequin (arlecore), and a specific console version to compute summary statistics (arlsumstat). The command-line versions run under both Linux and Windows. The main innovations of the new version include enhanced outputs in XML format, the possibility to embed graphics displaying computation results directly into output files, and the implementation of a new method to detect loci under selection from genome scans. Command-line versions are designed to handle large series of files, and arlsumstat can be used to generate summary statistics from simulated data sets within an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Claes F.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
Database : the journal of biological databases and curation

Combining epidemiological information, genetic characterization and geomapping in the analysis of influenza can contribute to a better understanding and description of influenza epidemiology and ecology, including possible virus reassortment events. Furthermore, integration of information such as agroecological farming system characteristics can provide new knowledge on risk factors of influenza emergence and spread. Integrating viral characteristics into an animal disease information system is therefore expected to provide a unique tool to trace-and-track particular virus strains; generate clade distributions and spatiotemporal clusters; screen for distribution of viruses with specific molecular markers; identify potential risk factors; and analyze or map viral characteristics related to vaccines used for control and/or prevention. For this purpose, a genetic module was developed within EMPRES-i (FAO's global animal disease information system) linking epidemiological information from influenza events with virus characteristics and enabling combined analysis. An algorithm was developed to act as the interface between EMPRES-i disease event data and publicly available influenza virus sequences in OpenfluDB. This algorithm automatically computes potential links between outbreak event and sequences, which are subsequently manually validated by experts. Subsequently, other virus characteristics such as antiviral resistance can then be associated to outbreak data. To visualize such characteristics on a geographic map, shape files with virus characteristics to overlay on other EMPRES-i map layers (e.g. animal densities) can be generated. The genetic module allows export of associated epidemiological and sequence data for further analysis. FAO has made this tool available for scientists and policy makers. Contributions are expected from users to improve and validate the number of linked influenza events and isolate information as well as the quality of information. Possibilities to interconnect with other influenza sequence databases or to expand the genetic module to other viral diseases (e.g. foot and mouth disease) are being explored. Database OpenfluDB URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch Database EMPRES-i URL: http://EMPRES-i.fao.org/. Source

Hausser J.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Zavolan M.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
Nature Reviews Genetics

Comparative genomics analyses and high-throughput experimental studies indicate that a microRNA (miRNA) binds to hundreds of sites across the transcriptome. Although the knockout of components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway has profound phenotypic consequences, most predicted miRNA targets undergo small changes at the mRNA and protein levels when the expression of the miRNA is perturbed. Alternatively, miRNAs can establish thresholds in and increase the coherence of the expression of their target genes, as well as reduce the cell-to-cell variability in target gene expression. Here, we review the recent progress in identifying miRNA targets and the emerging paradigms of how miRNAs shape the dynamics of target gene expression. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Necsulea A.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Kaessmann H.,University of Lausanne | Kaessmann H.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
Nature Reviews Genetics

Gene expression changes may underlie much of phenotypic evolution. The development of high-throughput RNA sequencing protocols has opened the door to unprecedented large-scale and cross-species transcriptome comparisons by allowing accurate and sensitive assessments of transcript sequences and expression levels. Here, we review the initial wave of the new generation of comparative transcriptomic studies in mammals and vertebrate outgroup species in the context of earlier work. Together with various large-scale genomic and epigenomic data, these studies have unveiled commonalities and differences in the dynamics of gene expression evolution for various types of coding and non-coding genes across mammalian lineages, organs, developmental stages, chromosomes and sexes. They have also provided intriguing new clues to the regulatory basis and phenotypic implications of evolutionary gene expression changes. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Schwede T.,University of Basel | Schwede T.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics

Computational modeling of three-dimensional macromolecular structures and complexes from their sequence has been a long-standing vision in structural biology. Over the last 2 decades, a paradigm shift has occurred: starting from a large "structure knowledge gap" between the huge number of protein sequences and small number of known structures, today, some form of structural information, either experimental or template-based models, is available for the majority of amino acids encoded by common model organism genomes. With the scientific focus of interest moving toward larger macromolecular complexes and dynamic networks of interactions, the integration of computational modeling methods with low-resolution experimental techniques allows the study of large and complex molecular machines. One of the open challenges for computational modeling and prediction techniques is to convey the underlying assumptions, as well as the expected accuracy and structural variability of a specific model, which is crucial to understanding its limitations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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