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Paolocci M.,University of Tuscia | Muganu M.,University of Tuscia | Alonso-Villaverde V.,Mision Biologica de Galicia CSIC | Gindro K.,Swiss Federal Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2014

The degree of resistance to downy mildew of grape varieties belonging to the oenological tradition of Central Italy was evaluated by the analysis of plant responses to pathogen infections carried out in natural and controlled environments. Leaf morphological traits, such as hair and stornata! density, were determined for each variety, and the percentage of infected stornata and pathogen colonization of host mesophyll at 24, 48, and 72 hours post inoculation were assessed by epifluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, stilbene production at the site of Plasmopara viticola infection was analyzed at 72 hours post inoculation. Results indicate differences in resistance to downy mildew among selected varieties. Different significant values were detected among grapevines in the percentage of infected stornata and average number of successfully penetrated zoospores per stornata and per leaf surface unit. Differences also emerged in the rate of pathogen growth and stilbene production, signifying that defence mechanisms involved or induced during pathogen infection could be differentially effective among grapevine cultivars in limiting disease progression. Source

Guillen L.,Institute Ecologia AC | Guillen L.,University of Veracruz | Aluja M.,Institute Ecologia AC | Rull J.,Institute Ecologia AC | And 3 more authors.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2011

The walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), has recently invaded Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and France, probably crossing the alpine divide after its initial introduction into Italy. Here, the susceptibility of 36 walnut [Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)] cultivars to attack by R. completa was studied in an experimental orchard in Switzerland. Walnut cultivars differed significantly in infestation rates; cultivars that produced large, heavy fruit harboured significantly more larvae than cultivars that produced smaller fruit. Pupal weight was significantly influenced by cultivar, but not by any of the physical properties that we measured. For individual fruit within a cultivar, pupal weight was weakly related to fruit weight and infestation level. Adult longevity was correlated with pupal weight and appeared to be favoured in flies that developed in large-fruit cultivars. The longevities of adults recovered from different cultivars differed significantly. The shortest longevity was recorded for flies recovered from Geisenheim 1049 (39.2±2.80days) and the longest for flies recovered from Sheinovo (68.8±21.75days). Differences in diapause length were also highly significant and varied between 167±5.1 (Esterhazy III) and 257.4±8.21days (Mayette). These results suggest that (1) across and within cultivars, walnut husk flies prefer to infest (i.e., they develop better in) large, heavy fruit, and (2) offspring that develop in large fruit are likely to accrue fitness advantages over the offspring of females using smaller fruit. Our results provide the basis for subsequent studies on resource defence by males, as they enable a prediction of which type of fruit males should defend more vigorously. © 2011 The Authors. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata © 2011 The Netherlands Entomological Society. Source

Favre-Godal Q.,University of Lausanne | Dorsaz S.,University of Lausanne | Queiroz E.F.,University of Lausanne | Conan C.,University of Lausanne | And 7 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2014

An efficient screening strategy for the identification of potentially interesting low-abundance antifungal natural products in crude extracts that combines both a sensitive bioautography assay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) microfractionation was developed. This method relies on high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) bioautography with a hypersusceptible engineered strain of Candida albicans (DSY2621) for bioactivity detection, followed by the evaluation of wild type strains in standard microdilution antifungal assays. Active extracts were microfractionated by HPLC in 96-well plates, and the fractions were subsequently submitted to the bioassay. This procedure enabled precise localisation of the antifungal compounds directly in the HPLC chromatograms of the crude extracts. HPLC-PDA-mass spectrometry (MS) data obtained in parallel to the HPLC antifungal profiles provided a first chemical screening about the bioactive constituents. Transposition of the HPLC analytical conditions to medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) allowed the efficient isolation of the active constituents in mg amounts for structure confirmation and more extensive characterisation of their biological activities. The antifungal properties of the isolated natural products were evaluated by their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in a dilution assay against both wild type and engineered strains of C. albicans. The biological activity of the most promising agents was further evaluated in vitro by electron microscopy and in vivo in a Galleria mellonella model of C. albicans infection. The overall procedure represents a rational and comprehensive means of evaluating antifungal activity from various perspectives for the selection of initial hits that can be explored in more in-depth mode-of-action studies. This strategy is illustrated by the identification and bioactivity evaluation of a series of antifungal compounds from the methanolic extract of a Rubiaceae plant, Morinda tomentosa, which was used as a model in these studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Schnee S.,Swiss Federal Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Queiroz E.F.,University of Lausanne | Voinesco F.,Swiss Federal Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Marcourt L.,University of Lausanne | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts of Vitis vinifera canes exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three major fungal pathogens affecting grapevines, Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The active extracts were analyzed by LC-PDA-ESI-MS, and selected compounds were identified. Efficient targeted isolation using medium-pressure liquid chromatography afforded six pure constituents in one step. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and HRMS. Six identified compounds (ampelopsin A, hopeaphenol, trans-resveratrol, ampelopsin H, ε-viniferin, and E-vitisin B) presented antifungal activities against P. viticola. ε-Viniferin also exhibited a low antifungal activity against B. cinerea. None of the identified compounds inhibited the germination of E. necator. The potential to develop a novel natural fungicide against the three major fungal pathogens affecting V. vinifera from viticulture waste material is discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Aluja M.,Institute Ecologia | Guillnn L.,Institute Ecologia | Rull J.,Institute Ecologia | Hohn H.,Swiss Federal Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2011

The Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to North America (Midwestern US and north-eastern Mexico) and has invaded several European countries in the past decades by likely crossing the alpine divide separating most parts of Switzerland from Italy. Here, we determined its current distribution in Switzerland by sampling walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in ecologically and climatically distinct regions along potential invasion corridors. R. completa was found to be firmly established in most low altitude areas of Switzerland where walnuts thrive, but notably not a single parasitoid was recovered from any of the samples. Infested fruit was recovered in 42 of the 71 localities that were surveyed, with mean fruit infestation rate varying greatly among sites. The incidence of R. completa in Switzerland is closely related to meteorological mean spring temperature patterns influencing growing season length, but not to winter temperatures, reflecting survival potential during hibernation. Importantly, areas in which the fly is absent correspond with localities where the mean spring temperatures fall below 7°C. Historical data records show that the natural cold barrier around the Alpine divide in the central Swiss Alps corresponding to such minimal temperatures has shrunk significantly from a width of more than 40 km before 1990 to around 20 km after 2000. We hypothesize on possible invasion/expansion routes along alpine valleys, dwell on distribution patterns in relation to climate, and outline future research needs as the incursion of R. completa into Switzerland; and, more recently, other European countries, such as Germany, Austria, France and Slovenia, represent an example of alien species that settle first in the Mediterranean Basin and from there become invasive by crossing the Alps. © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

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