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Kutinkova H.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute | Samietz J.,Swiss Federal Research Station | Dzhuvinov V.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute | Zingg D.,Biocontrol | Kessler P.,Biocontrol
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2012

The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), causes heavy damage in Bulgarian apple orchards. Conventionally treated orchards, were monitored in this study. In spite of numerous chemical treatments, these orchards showed increasing flight densities of CM moths, growing populations of hibernating larvae and rising fruit damage rates. Thus, the control of CM by conventional spraying programmes became ineffective, apparently due to the development of resistance to insecticides. Products based on the Cydia pomonella granulosis virus (CpGV), such as Madex®, may provide alternative control tools that can be applied with other approaches, for a sustainable control strategy. The trials were carried out in Central-South and South-East Bulgaria, in 2006-2010. Four treatments of Madex® against the first generation, and six treatments against the second generation kept the fruit damage and population density of CM at a low level. Based on the obtained results, different control strategies have been suggested, depending on the initial CM pressure in a particular orchard. Madex® may be a promising alternative to traditional programmes of CM control. Its dose, however, should be adjusted to the initial CM population density. Also, at a high or moderate CM population density Madex® applications should be combined with MD to avoid resistance of CM to granulovirus. At the peak of CM hatching, additional chemical treatments may be sometimes necessary. Such treatments include using insecticides which are still effective against CM.


Weinitschke S.,University of Konstanz | Hollemeyer K.,Saarland University | Kusian B.,University of Gottingen | Bowien B.,University of Gottingen | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Bacterial degradation of sulfoacetate, a widespread natural product, proceeds via sulfoacetaldehyde and requires a considerable initial energy input. Whereas the fate of sulfoacetaldehyde in Cupriavidus necator (Ralstonia eutropha) H16 is known, the pathway from sulfoacetate to sulfoacetaldehyde is not. The genome sequence of the organism enabled us to hypothesize that the inducible pathway, which initiates sau (sulfoacetate utilization), involved a four-gene cluster (sauRSTU; H16-A2746 to H16-A2749). The sauR gene, divergently orientated to the other three genes, probably encodes the transcriptional regulator of the presumed sauSTU operon, which is subject to inducible transcription. SauU was tentatively identified as a transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, and SauT was deduced to be a sulfoacetate-CoA ligase. SauT was a labile protein, but it could be separated and shown to generate AMP and an unknown, labile CoA-derivative from sulfoacetate, CoA, and ATP. This unknown compound, analyzed by MALDI-TOFMS, had a relative molecular mass of 889.7, which identified it as protonated sulfoacetyl-CoA (calculated 889.6). SauS was deduced to be sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating). The enzyme was purified 175-fold to homogeneity and characterized. Peptide mass fingerprinting confirmed the sauS locus (H16-A2747). SauS converted sulfoacetyl-CoA and NADPH to sulfoacetaldehyde, CoA, and NADP+, thus confirming the hypothesis. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Weinitschke S.,University of Konstanz | Weinitschke S.,Oregon State University | Sharma P.I.,University of Konstanz | Sharma P.I.,Barton College | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

Ubiquitous isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) is dissimilated by diverse bacteria. Growth of Cupriavidus necator H16 with isethionate was observed, as was inducible membrane-bound isethionate dehydrogenase (IseJ) and inducible transcription of the genes predicted to encode IseJ and a transporter (IseU). Biodiversity in isethionate transport genes was observed and investigated by transcription experiments. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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