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Kutinkova H.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute | Samietz J.,Swiss Federal Research Station | Dzhuvinov V.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute | Zingg D.,Biocontrol | Kessler P.,Biocontrol
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2012

The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), causes heavy damage in Bulgarian apple orchards. Conventionally treated orchards, were monitored in this study. In spite of numerous chemical treatments, these orchards showed increasing flight densities of CM moths, growing populations of hibernating larvae and rising fruit damage rates. Thus, the control of CM by conventional spraying programmes became ineffective, apparently due to the development of resistance to insecticides. Products based on the Cydia pomonella granulosis virus (CpGV), such as Madex®, may provide alternative control tools that can be applied with other approaches, for a sustainable control strategy. The trials were carried out in Central-South and South-East Bulgaria, in 2006-2010. Four treatments of Madex® against the first generation, and six treatments against the second generation kept the fruit damage and population density of CM at a low level. Based on the obtained results, different control strategies have been suggested, depending on the initial CM pressure in a particular orchard. Madex® may be a promising alternative to traditional programmes of CM control. Its dose, however, should be adjusted to the initial CM population density. Also, at a high or moderate CM population density Madex® applications should be combined with MD to avoid resistance of CM to granulovirus. At the peak of CM hatching, additional chemical treatments may be sometimes necessary. Such treatments include using insecticides which are still effective against CM. Source


Weinitschke S.,University of Konstanz | Weinitschke S.,Oregon State University | Sharma P.I.,University of Konstanz | Sharma P.I.,Barton College | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

Ubiquitous isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) is dissimilated by diverse bacteria. Growth of Cupriavidus necator H16 with isethionate was observed, as was inducible membrane-bound isethionate dehydrogenase (IseJ) and inducible transcription of the genes predicted to encode IseJ and a transporter (IseU). Biodiversity in isethionate transport genes was observed and investigated by transcription experiments. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Kutinkova H.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute | Dzhuvinov V.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute | Samietz J.,Swiss Federal Research Station | Casagrande E.,Gava Business Park
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The codling moth (CM) Cydia pomonella (L.), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide, including Bulgaria. Its larvae cause severe damage to apples, pears, quinces and walnuts. Resistance of CM to commonly used conventional insecticides (organophosphates and pyrethroids), which has already been noted in Bulgaria, as well as restrictions on insecticide use imposed by EU regulations, have encouraged a new approach to the control of this pest. Alternative methods have been extensively tested during the last few years. Mating disruption appears as a very promising solution. CheckMate̊ CM-F is a sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulation, containing the active ingredient (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (14.3%), has recently been introduced into many countries for the mating disruption of codling moth. Trials comparing this encapsulated sprayable pheromone against conventional CM control practices were carried out during two consecutive years (2007-2008), in central north Bulgaria. The microencapsulated pheromone (183 ml of CheckMate̊ CM-F per ha) was applied 6 times per season at 22-25 day intervals. In both years, it totally suppressed captures of male moths in codlemone baited traps in the trial plot. The fruit damage in the pheromone-treated plot stayed at a very low level, amounting at harvest 0.13% in 2007 and 0.3% in 2008 and the overwintering CM population in autumn was 0.55 and 0.65 larvae per tree in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In contrast, in the reference orchard, treated 9-11 times per season with conventional insecticides, fruit damage reached 2.3% in 2007 and 2.7% in 2008 and the hibernating CM population was 1.05 in 2007 and 1.85 larvae per tree in 2008. In conclusion, it was evident that applications of Check Mate̊ CM-F can provide an effective control of codling moth, with better results than the conventional protection program in Bulgaria and should be implemented in commercial apple production. Source


Kutinkova H.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute | Samietz J.,Swiss Federal Research Station | Dzhuvinov V.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2010

In the years 2007-2009, trials on control of codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), were carried out in apple orchards of South-East Bulgaria, where the pressure of the pest was very high. Mating disruption with Isomate C plus dispensers was applied in combination with sprays of the virus product Madex®. With a single installation of Isomate C plus dispensers per season + 4 treatments of Madex® at 100 ml per ha against the first and 6 treatments against the second generation, fruit damage at harvest and population density of codling moth were kept at a low level. At the same time fruit damage and population density of the pest, as estimated by the hibernating CM larvae population, was very high in the conventionally treated orchard serving as a reference. Using Isomate C plus dispensers and the baculovirus product Madex® may be a promising alternative to traditional programmes trying to control high initial infestation of codling moth. For Bulgaria, the combined tested strategies of mating disruption and virus control are suggested for control of codling moth in the orchards with CM population density of more than 3 larvae per tree or more than 5% fruit damage in the previous year. Source


Weinitschke S.,University of Konstanz | Hollemeyer K.,Saarland University | Kusian B.,University of Gottingen | Bowien B.,University of Gottingen | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Bacterial degradation of sulfoacetate, a widespread natural product, proceeds via sulfoacetaldehyde and requires a considerable initial energy input. Whereas the fate of sulfoacetaldehyde in Cupriavidus necator (Ralstonia eutropha) H16 is known, the pathway from sulfoacetate to sulfoacetaldehyde is not. The genome sequence of the organism enabled us to hypothesize that the inducible pathway, which initiates sau (sulfoacetate utilization), involved a four-gene cluster (sauRSTU; H16-A2746 to H16-A2749). The sauR gene, divergently orientated to the other three genes, probably encodes the transcriptional regulator of the presumed sauSTU operon, which is subject to inducible transcription. SauU was tentatively identified as a transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, and SauT was deduced to be a sulfoacetate-CoA ligase. SauT was a labile protein, but it could be separated and shown to generate AMP and an unknown, labile CoA-derivative from sulfoacetate, CoA, and ATP. This unknown compound, analyzed by MALDI-TOFMS, had a relative molecular mass of 889.7, which identified it as protonated sulfoacetyl-CoA (calculated 889.6). SauS was deduced to be sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating). The enzyme was purified 175-fold to homogeneity and characterized. Peptide mass fingerprinting confirmed the sauS locus (H16-A2747). SauS converted sulfoacetyl-CoA and NADPH to sulfoacetaldehyde, CoA, and NADP+, thus confirming the hypothesis. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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