Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property

Bern, Switzerland

Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property

Bern, Switzerland
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News Article | April 17, 2017

Apple has filed a complaint against Swatch in a Swiss court over the use of the phrase Tick Different in a marketing campaign. Swatch is using the slogan to market a wristwatch containing a contactless payment chip. Apple says the phrase unfairly references its Think Different campaign, which ran in the 1990s. According to Swiss news site Watson, Swatch chief executive Nick Hayek said the similarity was purely coincidental. He said the slogan was a nod to one of its own campaigns from the 1980s: "Always different, always new." Apple used Think Different in its adverts from 1997 to 2002, in what was thought to be a response to IBM's Think ad campaign. A 1998 television advert, featuring black-and-white images of historical figures such as Einstein and Gandhi, won an Emmy. In the complaint to the Swiss Federal Administrative Court, Apple's lawyers Lenz & Staehelin said the tagline was long considered "the core of the Apple brand". Legal experts say that, to win the case, Apple must show that Swatch's use of the phrase Tick Different provokes an association with Apple products in the minds of at least 50% of consumers. A similar complaint lodged at the same time with the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property was rejected. Swatch was granted trademark status for the phrase Tick Different in the US in 2015. It also has the trademark for the slogan in Switzerland. This is not the first time the two companies have clashed. In September last year, the UK Intellectual Property Office upheld Swatch's opposition to Apple's efforts to trademark "iWatch" in the UK. It ruled that the term was too close to "iSwatch" and "Swatch".

Blom R.A.M.,University of Bern | Amacker M.,Mymetics SA | van Dijk R.M.,University of Zürich | Moser C.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2017

Pulmonary administration of biomimetic nanoparticles loaded with antigen may represent an effective strategy to directly modulate adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract. Depending on the design, virosomes may not only serve as biomimetic antigen carriers but are also endowed with intrinsic immune-stimulatory properties. We designed fluorescently labeled influenza-derived virosomes and liposome controls coupled to the model antigen ovalbumin to investigate uptake, phenotype changes, and antigen processing by antigen-presenting cells exposed to such particles in different respiratory tract compartments. Both virosomes and liposomes were captured by pulmonary macrophages and dendritic cells alike and induced activation in particle-bearing cells by upregulation of costimulatory markers such as CD40, CD80, CD86, PD-L1, PD-L2, and ICOS-L. Though antigen processing and accumulation of both coupled and soluble antigen was similar between virosomes and liposomes, only ovalbumin-coupled virosomes generated a strong antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation. Pulmonary administrated antigen-coupled virosomes therefore effectively induced adaptive immune responses and may be utilized in novel preventive or therapeutic approaches in the respiratory tract. © 2017 Blom, Amacker, van Dijk, Moser, Stumbles, Blank and von Garnier.

Blom R.A.M.,University of Bern | Amacker M.,Mymetics SA | Moser C.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property | van Dijk R.M.,University of Zürich | And 6 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2017

There is considerable interest to develop antigen-carriers for immune-modulatory clinical applications, but insufficient information is available on their effects on antigen-presenting cells. We employed virosomes coupled to ovalbumin (OVA) to study their interaction with murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and modulation of downstream T cell responses. BMDCs were treated in vitro with virosomes or liposomes prior to determining BMDC phenotype, viability, and intracellular trafficking. Antigen-specific CD4+ T cell activation was measured by co-culture of BMDCs with DO11.10 CD4+ T cells. Compared to liposomes, virosomes were rapidly taken up. Neither nanocarrier type affected BMDC viability, nor did a moderate degree of activation differ for markers such as CD40, CD80, CD86. Virosome uptake occurred via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis, with co-localization in late endosomes. Only BMDCs treated with OVA-coupled virosomes induced enhanced OVA-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation. Antigen-coupled virosomes are endowed with an intrinsic ability to modulate DC-dependent adaptive immune responses. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Herder C.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Swiercz J.M.,Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research | Muller C.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory | Muller C.,University of Heidelberg | And 9 more authors.
Development (Cambridge) | Year: 2013

The vertebrate central nervous system develops from an epithelium where cells are polarized along the apicobasal axis. Loss of this polarity results in abnormal organ architecture, morphology and proliferation. We found that mutations of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor ArhGEF18 affect apicobasal polarity of the retinal neuroepithelium in medaka fish. We show that ArhGEF18-mediated activation of the small GTPase RhoA is required to maintain apicobasal polarity at the onset of retinal differentiation and to control the ratio of neurogenic to proliferative cell divisions. RhoA signals through Rock2 to regulate apicobasal polarity, tight junction localization and the cortical actin cytoskeleton. The human ArhGEF18 homologue can rescue the mutant phenotype, suggesting a conserved function in vertebrate neuroepithelia. Our analysis identifies ArhGEF18 as a key regulator of tissue architecture and function, controlling apicobasal polarity and proliferation through RhoA activation. We thus identify the control of neuroepithelial apicobasal polarity as a novel role for RhoA signaling in vertebrate development. © 2013.

Reichen P.,ETH Zurich | Reichen P.,Nestlé | Sonnenfeld A.,ETH Zurich | Sonnenfeld A.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property | Von Rohr P.R.,ETH Zurich
Plasma Sources Science and Technology | Year: 2011

This study evaluates the spatial expansion of barrier discharges (BDs) in oxygen, carbon dioxide, synthetic air, and helium at atmospheric pressure. Despite being confined in narrow gas channels, the BD plasma only partially covers the available discharge area at low applied voltages as was experimentally observed. This is important for homogeneous surface treatment. The appearance of local discharge zones in the plasma development results in a variation of the capacitive behaviour of the equivalent electric circuit as a function of the applied voltage. This transient behaviour of the apparent dielectric capacitance is therefore investigated for various discharge areas and different gas compositions. Furthermore, a semi-empirical model describing the expansion behaviour is proposed and validated by means of the obtained experimental data. The results clearly show that a three times higher voltage excess is required for oxygen-containing gases compared with helium in order to develop full plasma expansion. For the discharge areas considered, the size of the available electrode plays a minor role in the plasma expansion process. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Schutz C.A.,University of Lausanne | Juillerat-Jeanneret L.,University of Lausanne | Mueller H.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property | Lynch I.,University College Dublin | Riediker M.,Institute for Work and Health
Nanomedicine | Year: 2013

This article reviews nanoparticulate-chemotherapeutic systems that have been developed for human therapy, considering the components of the nanoparticles, the therapeutic agents associated with the nanoparticles and the clinical indications these therapeutic nanoparticles have been developed for. In this evaluation we have put into perspective the types of nanomaterials and their therapeutic indications. We have reviewed the nanoparticulate- chemotherapeutic systems that have been published, approved and marketed and that are currently in clinical use. We have also analyzed the nanoparticulate-chemotherapeutic systems that are in clinical trials and under preclinical development. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

Burger P.B.,University of Pretoria | Williams M.,University of Pretoria | Sprenger J.,Lund University | Reeksting S.B.,University of Pretoria | And 6 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Plasmodium falciparum is the most pathogenic of the human malaria parasite species and a major cause of death in Africa. It's resistance to most of the current drugs accentuates the pressing need for new chemotherapies. Polyamine metabolism of the parasite is distinct from the human pathway making it an attractive target for chemotherapeutic development. Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase (PfSpdS) catalyzes the synthesis of spermidine and spermine. It is a major polyamine flux-determining enzyme and spermidine is a prerequisite for the post-translational activation of P. falciparum eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (elF5A). The most potent inhibitors of eukaryotic SpdS's are not specific for PfSpdS. Methods: 'Dynamic' receptor-based pharmacophore models were generated from published crystal structures of SpdS with different ligands. This approach takes into account the inherent flexibility of the active site, which reduces the entropic penalties associated with ligand binding. Four dynamic pharmacophore models were developed and two inhibitors, (1R,4R)-(N1-(3-aminopropyl)-trans-cyclohexane-1,4-diamine (compound 8) and an analogue, N-(3-aminopropyl)-cyclohexylamine (compound 9), were identified. Results: A crystal structure containing compound 8 was solved and confirmed the in silico prediction that its aminopropyl chain traverses the catalytic centre in the presence of the byproduct of catalysis, 5'-methylthioadenosine. The IC50 value of compound 9 is in the same range as that of the most potent inhibitors of PfSpdS, S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thio-octane (AdoDATO) and 4MCHA and 100-fold lower than that of compound 8. Compound 9 was originally identified as a mammalian spermine synthase inhibitor and does not inhibit mammalian SpdS. This implied that these two compounds bind in an orientation where their aminopropyl chains face the putrescine binding site in the presence of the substrate, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine. The higher binding affinity and lower receptor strain energy of compound 9 compared to compound 8 in the reversed orientation explained their different IC50 values. Conclusion: The specific inhibition of PfSpdS by compound 9 is enabled by its binding in the additional cavity normally occupied by spermidine when spermine is synthesized. This is the first time that a spermine synthase inhibitor is shown to inhibit PfSpdS, which provides new avenues to explore for the development of novel inhibitors of PfSpdS. © 2015 Burger et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

PubMed | University of Zürich, University of Bern, Mymetics SA and Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The respiratory tract with its ease of access, vast surface area and dense network of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) represents an ideal target for immune-modulation. Bio-mimetic nanocarriers such as virosomes may provide immunomodulatory properties to treat diseases such as allergic asthma. In our study we employed a triple co-culture model of epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells to simulate the human airway barrier. The epithelial cell line 16HBE was grown on inserts and supplemented with human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dendritic cells (MDDCs) for exposure to influenza virosomes and liposomes. Additionally, primary human nasal epithelial cells (PHNEC) and EpCAM+ epithelial progenitor cell mono-cultures were utilized to simulate epithelium from large and smaller airways, respectively. To assess particle uptake and phenotype change, cell cultures were analyzed by flow cytometry and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA. All cell types internalized virosomes more efficiently than liposomes in both mono- and co-cultures. APCs like MDMs and MDDCs showed the highest uptake capacity. Virosome and liposome treatment caused a moderate degree of activation in MDDCs from mono-cultures and induced an increased cytokine production in co-cultures. In epithelial cells, virosome uptake was increased compared to liposomes in both mono- and co-cultures with EpCAM+ epithelial progenitor cells showing highest uptake capacity. In conclusion, all cell types successfully internalized both nanocarriers with virosomes being taken up by a higher proportion of cells and at a higher rate inducing limited activation of MDDCs. Thus virosomes may represent ideal carrier antigen systems to modulate mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract without causing excessive inflammatory changes.

Bruns P.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property | Tran M.Q.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Kunz D.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property | Mueller H.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property | Soltmann C.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property
World Patent Information | Year: 2012

The patenting activity in the field of controlled nuclear fusion was investigated to assess the role of this emerging technology as a catalyst for inventions in other technological areas. Patent statistical data allows to track not only the evolution of a technology, but also to analyze cross-fertilizing effects of a technology that is not quite ready for implementation. Spillovers from nuclear fusion research for applicable inventions to other technological areas can be identified. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Schutz C.A.,University of Lausanne | Juillerat-Jeanneret L.,University of Lausanne | Soltmann C.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property | Mueller H.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property
World Patent Information | Year: 2013

Therapeutic nanoparticle systems have become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical sector during the last decade. Many of these systems are either already on the market or in preclinical or clinical studies. In order to assess the impact of these systems on biological organisms, regulatory agencies and other institutions actively seek to collect data related to the safety and toxicity of these nanoparticles. While toxicity data is to some extent available for nanoparticles already on the market or in clinical trials, there continues to be a significant demand for data on nanoparticles in the early developmental stages. Such data would allow researchers and governmental agencies to assess in advance the possible impact of the next generation of nanoparticle-based drugs. This study shows that patent documents can be a valuable source for the information required. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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