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Willi C.,Ernst Basler Partner Ltd. EBP | Elsener Metz J.,Ernst Basler Partner Ltd. EBP | Meyer W.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC
Proceedings of the 4th International Disaster and Risk Conference: Integrative Risk Management in a Changing World - Pathways to a Resilient Society, IDRC Davos 2012 | Year: 2012

Authorities responsible for flood control and disaster relief urgently need an overview on the expected total risks per year on their territory. They seek for cost-effective measures to reduce the risks significantly. Generally, risk assessment requires detailed data which are often not available to a full extent. A pragmatic approach to analyse and assess risks is therefore an adequate alternative to obtain a general overview of the risk situation in a region. Such a pragmatic approach has been applied on Han River in China, supported by the IT-Tool RiskPlan.


Hausmann-Muela S.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC | Eckl J.,University of Hamburg
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Ongoing political-economic discussions that take stock of social and societal determinants of health present an opportunity for productive dialogue on why current approaches to malaria control and elimination need to be broadened, and how this may be accomplished. They invite us, for example, to look beyond malaria as a disease, to appreciate the experiences of malaria-afflicted populations, to transcend techno-centric approaches, to investigate social conflicts around malaria, to give voice to the communities engaged in bottom-up approaches, and to revisit lessons learned in the past. While contributions from all disciplines are invited to this discussion, social scientists are particularly encouraged to participate. They have struggled in the past to find an appropriate platform within the malaria community that provides them the opportunity to address researchers from other disciplines, malaria practitioners, and policy makers. The Malaria Journal's new thematic series on 're-imagining malaria' offers them this opportunity. The goal of the series is to encourage transdisciplinary thinking, to stimulate discussion, to promote constructive criticism, and to gather overlooked experiences that help to reflect on implicit assumptions. Overall it aims at widening horizons in malaria control. © 2015 Hausmann-Muela and Eckl; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC and University of Hamburg
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2015

Ongoing political-economic discussions that take stock of social and societal determinants of health present an opportunity for productive dialogue on why current approaches to malaria control and elimination need to be broadened, and how this may be accomplished. They invite us, for example, to look beyond malaria as a disease, to appreciate the experiences of malaria-afflicted populations, to transcend techno-centric approaches, to investigate social conflicts around malaria, to give voice to the communities engaged in bottom-up approaches, and to revisit lessons learned in the past. While contributions from all disciplines are invited to this discussion, social scientists are particularly encouraged to participate. They have struggled in the past to find an appropriate platform within the malaria community that provides them the opportunity to address researchers from other disciplines, malaria practitioners, and policy makers. The Malaria Journals new thematic series on re-imagining malaria offers them this opportunity. The goal of the series is to encourage transdisciplinary thinking, to stimulate discussion, to promote constructive criticism, and to gather overlooked experiences that help to reflect on implicit assumptions. Overall it aims at widening horizons in malaria control.


Onono J.O.,Lane College | Onono J.O.,University of Nairobi | Wieland B.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC | Rushton J.,Lane College
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2013

Livestock keeping is the mainstay for the pastoral community while also providing social and cultural value. This study ranked main production constraints and cattle diseases that impacted livelihood and estimated herd prevalence, incidence rate, and impact of diseases on production parameters in a semiarid pastoral district of Narok in Kenya. Data collection employed participatory techniques including listing, pairwise ranking, disease incidence scoring, proportional piling, and disease impact matrix scoring and this was disaggregated by gender. Production constraints with high scores for impact on livelihood included scarcity of water (19 %), lack of extension services (15 %), presence of diseases (12 %), lack of market for cattle and their products (10 %), and recurrent cycle of drought (9 %). Diseases with high scores for impact on livelihood were East Coast fever (ECF) (22 %) and foot and mouth disease (FMD) (21 %). High estimated incidence rates were reported for FMD (67 %), trypanosomosis (28 %), and ECF (15 %), while contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) had an incidence rate <1 %. Milk yield was affected by FMD, ECF, and trypanosomosis, while ECF was the cause of increased mortality. FMD, ECF, CBPP, and brucellosis caused increased abortion, while effect of gender and location of study was not significant. Despite CBPP being regarded as an important disease affecting cattle production in sub-Sahara Africa, its estimated incidence rate in herds was low. This study indicates what issues should be prioritized by livestock policy for pastoral areas. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Onono J.O.,Lane College | Onono J.O.,University of Nairobi | Wieland B.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC | Rushton J.,Lane College
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2013

This study analyzed the determinants for choice of animal health providers in a semiarid pastoral area with an aim of identifying specific attributes that could be targeted for intervention to enhance pastoralist access to quality veterinary services. The data were collected through administration of semi-structured questionnaires to 350 randomly selected household heads in different locations in Narok County of Kenya. Most of these respondents had no formal education (66.9 %), and most households were headed by men (88.9 %). The men were in control of sales (84.2 %), purchases (83.7 %), and treatment of sick cattle (70.3 %), while women were responsible for milking (83.8 %). Animal health services were delivered by drug stockists (87.76 %) and government veterinarians (12.24 %). The time spent while seeking animal health services and transport cost were specific attributes with impact on the probability of choice for service providers. Although distance covered to the preferred service provider was a significant attribute, it was inversely related to the probability of choice. The other factors including herd sizes, age and sex of household head, cost incurred per visit, level of education of household head, and the number of visits did not have significant impact on choices. These findings support commercialization of veterinary services in marginalized areas where the delivery of essential animal health services such as disease control programs are often viewed as a public good. In order to enhance delivery of veterinary services in these areas, it is proposed that public and private means are investigated to support qualified veterinarians and to strengthen the activities of untrained personnel operating drug outlets. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Onono J.O.,Lane College | Onono J.O.,University of Nairobi | Wieland B.,Lane College | Wieland B.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC | Rushton J.,Lane College
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an infectious disease which impacts cattle production in sub-Saharan Africa. To adequately allocate resources for its control, there is a need to assess its impact on cattle producers. The present study estimated the impact of CBPP on pastoralists through analysis of various strategies employed for its control in cattle herds including: preventive vaccination, antimicrobial treatment, slaughter of clinical cases and other combinations of these control strategies. The assessment was based on a loss-expenditure frontier framework to identify a control strategy with minimum cost from both expenditures on control strategies and output losses due to mortalities, reduced milk yield, reduced weight gain and reduced fertility rate. The analysis was undertaken in a stochastic spreadsheet model. The control strategy with minimum cost per herd was preventive vaccination with an estimated cost of US$ 193 (90% CI; 170-215) per 100 cows per year, while slaughter of clinical cases had an estimated cost of US$ 912 (90% CI; 775-1055) per 100 cows per year. The impact of CBPP to the nation was estimated at US$ 7.6 (90% CI; 6.5-8.7) million per year. Yet, if all pastoralists whose cattle are at high risk of infection adopted preventive vaccination, the aggregate national impact would be US$ 3.3 (90% CI; 2.9-3.7) million per year, with savings amounting to US$ 4.3 million through reallocation of control expenditures. The analysis predicted that control of CBPP in Kenya is profitable through preventive vaccination. However, further research is recommended for the technical and financial feasibility of implementing a vaccine delivery system in pastoral areas where CBPP is endemic. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Schacher T.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC | Carlevaro N.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC | Roux-Fouillet G.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC
NCEE 2014 - 10th U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering: Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014

A majority of common low-rise buildings in the big cities of poor countries is built by small-scale contractors without the involvement of engineers. Earthquake risk reduction can only be achieved if this workforce is trained properly and if the general public is made aware that safer construction is possible and affordable. The present paper will show how confined masonry has been retained as the most appropriate construction technique for common housing reconstruction in Haiti and how various national authorities have been involved in the promotion of this new construction standard. The main part of the paper is focusing on how the training of masons has been organised by the Reconstruction Competence Centre of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, which training and information material was produced and which actions have been taken to inform the public. It will conclude with some lessons learned so that other organizations interested in training may make use of this experience.

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