Swinomish Indian Tribal Community

Walla Walla, WA, United States

Swinomish Indian Tribal Community

Walla Walla, WA, United States
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Donatuto J.L.,Swinomish Indian Tribal Community | Donatuto J.L.,University of British Columbia | Satterfield T.A.,University of British Columbia | Gregory R.,Decision Research
Health, Risk and Society | Year: 2011

Current United States government risk assessment and management regulations fail to consider Native American definitions of health or risk. On the invitation of the Coast Salish Swinomish Indian Tribal Community of Washington State, this study examines local meanings of health in reference to seafood where contamination of their aquatic natural resources has been found. By conducting two series of interviews with Swinomish seafood consumers, experts and elders, the study allowed interviewees to provide a more complete picture of the implications of seafood contamination alongside consumption habits within the community. Study results demonstrate that seafood represents a symbolic, deeply meaningful food source that is linked to a multi-dimensional 'Swinomish' concept of health. A health evaluation tool using descriptive scaled rankings was devised to clarify non-physiological health risks and impacts in relation to contaminated seafood. Findings demonstrate that food security, ceremonial use, knowledge transmission, and community cohesion all play primary roles in Swinomish definitions of individual and community health and complement physical indicators of health. Thus, to eat less seafood (as prescribed on the basis of current physiological measures) may actually be detrimental to the Swinomish concept of health. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Gaydos J.K.,University of California at Davis | Thixton S.,University of California at Davis | Donatuto J.,Swinomish Indian Tribal Community
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Despite the merit of managing natural resources on the scale of ecosystems, evaluating threats and managing risk in ecosystems that span multiple countries or jurisdictions can be challenging. This requires each government involved to consider actions in concert with actions being taken in other countries by co-managing entities. Multiple proposed fossil fuel-related and port development projects in the Salish Sea, a 16,925 km2 inland sea shared by Washington State (USA), British Columbia (Canada), and Indigenous Coast Salish governments, have the potential to increase marine vessel traffic and negatively impact natural resources. There is no legal mandate or management mechanism requiring a comprehensive review of the potential cumulative impacts of these development activities throughout the Salish Sea and across the international border. This project identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea and evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to the Coast Salish. While recognizing that Coast Salish traditions identify all species as important and connected, we used expert elicitation to identify 50 species upon which we could evaluate impact. These species were chosen because Coast Salish depend upon them heavily for harvest revenue or as a staple food source, they were particularly culturally or spiritually significant, or they were historically part of Coast Salish lifeways. We identified six development projects, each of which had three potential impacts (pressures) associated with increased marine vessel traffic: oil spill, vessel noise and vessel strike. Projects varied in their potential for localized impacts (pressures) including shoreline development, harbor oil spill, pipeline spill, coal dust accumulation and nearshore LNG explosion. Based on available published data, impact for each pressure/species interaction was rated as likely, possible or unlikely. Impacts are likely to occur in 23 to 28% of the possible pressure/ species scenarios and are possible in another 15 to 28% additional pressure/species interactions. While it is not clear which impacts will be additive, synergistic, or potentially antagonistic, studies that manipulate multiple stressors in marine ecosystems suggest that threats associated with these six projects are likely to have an overall additive or even synergistic interaction and therefore impact species of major cultural importance to the Coast Salish, an important concept that would be lost by merely evaluating each project independently. Failure to address multiple impacts will affect the Coast Salish and the 7 million other people that also depend on this ecosystem. These findings show the value of evaluating multiple threats, and ultimately conducting risk assessments at the scale of ecosystems and highlight the serious need for managers of multinational ecosystems to actively collaborate on evaluating threats, assessing risk, and managing resources. © 2015 Gaydos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Swinomish Indian Tribal Community and University of California at Davis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Despite the merit of managing natural resources on the scale of ecosystems, evaluating threats and managing risk in ecosystems that span multiple countries or jurisdictions can be challenging. This requires each government involved to consider actions in concert with actions being taken in other countries by co-managing entities. Multiple proposed fossil fuel-related and port development projects in the Salish Sea, a 16,925 km2 inland sea shared by Washington State (USA), British Columbia (Canada), and Indigenous Coast Salish governments, have the potential to increase marine vessel traffic and negatively impact natural resources. There is no legal mandate or management mechanism requiring a comprehensive review of the potential cumulative impacts of these development activities throughout the Salish Sea and across the international border. This project identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea and evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to the Coast Salish. While recognizing that Coast Salish traditions identify all species as important and connected, we used expert elicitation to identify 50 species upon which we could evaluate impact. These species were chosen because Coast Salish depend upon them heavily for harvest revenue or as a staple food source, they were particularly culturally or spiritually significant, or they were historically part of Coast Salish lifeways. We identified six development projects, each of which had three potential impacts (pressures) associated with increased marine vessel traffic: oil spill, vessel noise and vessel strike. Projects varied in their potential for localized impacts (pressures) including shoreline development, harbor oil spill, pipeline spill, coal dust accumulation and nearshore LNG explosion. Based on available published data, impact for each pressure/species interaction was rated as likely, possible or unlikely. Impacts are likely to occur in 23 to 28% of the possible pressure/species scenarios and are possible in another 15 to 28% additional pressure/species interactions. While it is not clear which impacts will be additive, synergistic, or potentially antagonistic, studies that manipulate multiple stressors in marine ecosystems suggest that threats associated with these six projects are likely to have an overall additive or even synergistic interaction and therefore impact species of major cultural importance to the Coast Salish, an important concept that would be lost by merely evaluating each project independently. Failure to address multiple impacts will affect the Coast Salish and the 7 million other people that also depend on this ecosystem. These findings show the value of evaluating multiple threats, and ultimately conducting risk assessments at the scale of ecosystems and highlight the serious need for managers of multinational ecosystems to actively collaborate on evaluating threats, assessing risk, and managing resources.


Ranco D.J.,University of Maine, United States | O'Neill C.A.,Seattle University | Donatuto J.,Swinomish Indian Tribal Community | Harper B.L.,Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation
Environmental Justice | Year: 2011

Environmental justice in the tribal context cannot be contemplated apart from a recognition of American Indian tribes' unique historical, political, and legal circumstances. American Indian tribes are sovereign governments, with inherent powers of self-government over their citizens and their territories. Their status as sovereign entities predates contact with European settlers. This separate status, nonetheless, was affirmed by the United States early on and is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. Tribes today continue to exist as distinct sovereigns within the boundaries of the United States. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Dayton P.K.,University of California at San Diego | Kim S.,Moss Landing Marine Laboratories | Jarrell S.C.,University of California at San Diego | Oliver J.S.,Moss Landing Marine Laboratories | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Polar ecosystems are sensitive to climate forcing, and we often lack baselines to evaluate changes. Here we report a nearly 50-year study in which a sudden shift in the population dynamics of an ecologically important, structure-forming hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx joubini was observed. This is the largest Antarctic sponge, with individuals growing over two meters tall. In order to investigate life history characteristics of Antarctic marine invertebrates, artificial substrata were deployed at a number of sites in the southern portion of the Ross Sea between 1967 and 1975. Over a 22-year period, no growth or settlement was recorded for A. joubini on these substrata; however, in 2004 and 2010, A. joubini was observed to have settled and grown to large sizes on some but not all artificial substrata. This single settlement and growth event correlates with a region-wide shift in phytoplankton productivity driven by the calving of a massive iceberg. We also report almost complete mortality of large sponges followed over 40 years. Given our warming global climate, similar system-wide changes are expected in the future. © 2013 Dayton et al.


Donatuto J.,Swinomish Indian Tribal Community | Campbell L.,Swinomish Indian Tribal Community | Gregory R.,University of British Columbia
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is “at risk” is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Poe M.R.,University of Washington | Donatuto J.,Swinomish Indian Tribal Community | Satterfield T.,University of British Columbia
Coastal Management | Year: 2016

Sense of place is increasingly recognized as key to human wellbeing in social-ecological systems. Yet there is limited understanding about how to define and evaluate it for restoration. Here, we examine the connections between sense of place and human wellbeing for Puget Sound in the context of ecological restoration for shellfish harvesting and other shoreline activities. Using a mixed-methods approach, including semi-structured interviews and participatory workshops with tribal and non-tribal residents, we examined sense of place in two regions of Puget Sound. Empirical results show that people's senses of place are multi-dimensional and derived from: (1) activities in the near-shore; (2) cultural practices and familial heritage; (3) sensory and emotional experiences; and (4) the maintenance and strengthening of social connections. We also found that three conditions play important roles in enabling and fostering place attachment: access, knowledge, and ecological integrity. Improved understanding of a practice-based sense of place is key to creating and enacting successful, resident-supported restoration activities. © 2016 NOAA.


Trademark
Swinomish Indian Tribal Community | Date: 2012-11-27

Brochures featuring Indian culture. Gaming and casino equipment, namely, poker chips and playing cards. Providing websites advertising tribal governmental services. Arranging and conducting tribal general social meetings and culture festivals; entertainment services in the nature of arranging, organizing and conducting community festivals and musical concerts; providing casino and gaming facilities and services; providing entertainment in the nature of gambling tournaments, live music and comedy.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: AISL | Award Amount: 296.15K | Year: 2015

As part of its overall strategy to enhance learning in informal environments, the Advancing Informal STEM Learning (AISL) program funds innovative resources for use in a variety of settings. This includes providing multiple pathways for broadening access to and engagement in STEM learning experiences, advancing innovative research on and assessment of STEM learning in informal environments, and developing understandings of deeper learning by participants. The project will develop an informal tribal community-based environmental health (EH) education framework based on Indigenous knowledge, practices, and learning styles using a First Foods paradigm. First Foods represent a unique, place-based knowledge and practice, intimately tied to traditional ecological knowledge. Most (if not all) tribal communities in the United States have knowledge and practices centered around their local natural resources and First Foods. By building, testing and evaluating an innovative EH education model based on a culturally-meaningful local knowledge source, First Foods, this project seeks to increase informal STEM learning in tribal communities. American Indians and Alaska Natives account for 2% of the population but only 0.1% of STEM-related degrees. By working specifically with this underserved and underrepresented group, this project seeks to engage tribal community members in informal STEM learning, increasing access to informal learning settings, particularly for young people who are not currently engaged in formal STEM learning environments. The EH framework will be disseminated locally, regionally and nationally through Indian Health Boards, conferences, and with other tribal communities interested in informal STEM education and environmental health programs.

The project will review established EH and First Foods program curricula to develop a tribal-specific community-based EH education framework. The project will use the contextual model of informal STEM learning developed by Falk and Dierking, which is designed to integrate personal, sociocultural and physical aspects of learning. The project will adapt this model in order to create a space for community experience to enrich learning, as well as expanding the view of the physical context beyond the biophysical environment to encompass a holistic definition of the living environment. This model and framework will be developed in an iterative manner, with continuing formative evaluations both internally and externally. The overarching hypothesis is that the proposed model will increase informal STEM learning by providing a culturally meaningful education platform that resonates with tribal community members. The model will focus heavily on the sociocultural aspect of learning, striving to collaboratively design a CBEH education program that is appropriate and adaptable for tribal communities and includes pertinent EH themes and information. Metrics and evaluation techniques will be developed, as relevant, for the iterative evaluation of specific program components. Year 1 development and evaluation will focus on the review of community-based EH activities, design of the project EH model and prototype program components. Critical review will be provided by project advisors, the Swinomish Health and Human Services Committee, and tribal elders. Year 2 will focus on the implementation of prototype program components. The project external evaluator will use mixed methodologies, including observation, interviews, pre-and post-surveys, participant ranking of activities/events, and quantitative analysis of attendance at EH events. A tribal-university partnership has been established that includes expertise in informal STEM learning, environmental health program evaluation, cultural competency, and outreach and engagement.


News Article | December 2, 2016
Site: www.washingtonpost.com

The world loves seafood. According to some estimates, people consumed about 102 million tons of it last year. A new study released Friday by the Nippon Foundation-Nereus Program, based at the University of British Columbia, shows that indigenous people who live on the world’s coasts are definitely hooked. They consume 15 times more seafood per capita than people in other parts of the world, about 2.3 million tons, or about 2 percent of the global catch, the study said. They don’t simply catch and eat fish and other seafood. It’s the heart of communities, the center of culture and religion, a gift from the heavens. Seafood is crucial to the cultures of coastal indigenous people in the Americas, Asia, Africa and the Arctic, among other places, and overfishing and the ocean-wide movement of fish due to climate change could wipe those resources out. [Scientists say climate change is threatening the life blood of Canada’s native people] On the coast of Africa at the equator, huge commercial ships are starting to encroach on native fishing areas as ocean stocks diminish. In places such as Madagascar, the stocks of community fisheries have been nearly lost. “These big industrial fisheries are chasing the fish. In West Africa, larger vessels are moving closer and closer to shore,” said Andrés Cisneros-Montemayor, research associate at the University of British Columbia and an author of the study published in PLOS One. “A lot of these indigenous communities, all they have are dugout canoes.” “What you’ve seen is as people have less access to their traditional fishing ground,” Cisneros-Montemayor said, “people have turned to eating more food in the stores. People are wondering about the effects on their health. There’s an elevation in cases of diabetes.” Coastal communities greatly rely on fishing, but no one knew exactly how much indigenous people on the coast need fish. Policymakers around the world, who sought to understand the impacts of overfishing, encroachment on community fisheries and climate change had on coastal communities, lacked basic information. Cisneros-Montemayor said that’s why his team of researchers embarked on the study. They used United Nations data to discover and define indigenous populations. According to the data, there are about 370 million people who are considered to be indigenous, 5 percent of the world’s population. They are mostly racial and ethnic minorities who are native inhabitants of their regions. Some are recognized by governments and some are not. Coastal indigenous cultures are even more distinct, about 27 million people in nearly 2,000 communities in 87 countries. Although they represent a sliver of the world population, there isn’t a part of the world where native coastal people don’t live. [As salmon vanish in the Pacific Northwest, so does native heritage] They include people in the Pacific Northwest in the United States and Canada, and in the Arctic regions of those countries. Australia, New Zealand, Latin America, the Caribbean and Europe are just a few of the places they’ve populated for centuries as the world developed around them. The researchers, which included lead investigator Yoshitaka Ota, policy director for the Nereus Program, created a database to help determine how much of the global catch is consumed where coastal indigenous people live. They discovered that coastal indigenous populations took 165 pounds per person as opposed to the 44 pounds per person consumed in the rest of the world. But the study was limited. Because consumption trends have not been tracked, it could not show whether coastal natives were eating more or less fish than they had in the past. “That’s why these baseline studies are so important,” Cisneros-Montemayor said. “Since this is the first one, we have no number to compare it with. But people on the ground have noticed a big decline in consumption of these foods. People have noticed a decline in their culture and social cohesion.” In the Pacific Northwest, the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community watched as salmon runs from the oceans to rivers diminished because of development. Last year, as a drought plagued nearly all parts of the West, they watched and worried as disease that developed in warmer waters resulted in record fish kills in areas where salmon make spawning runs. “I grew up always having salmon,” Lorraine Loomis, fisheries director for the tribal community, said at the time. Her culture is so intertwined with the migratory fish that they’re called the “People of the Salmon.” Salmon feasts marked every phase of life on the reservation north of Seattle — naming ceremonies, weddings, funerals, memorials to the dead. Now they are few, she said. “A lot of communities are very similar, their food and cultural practices. What do they do if the fish are gone?” Cisneros-Montemayor asked. “We are at risk of losing human cultures that have been around for thousands of years, which makes this issue much more than environmental,” he said. The big fish story everyone is missing in the Western drought Wild animals are dying for a drink in California’s drought Federal officials want to track every fish shipped to a U.S. port

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