Bruins M.J.,Unilever |
Vente-Spreeuwenberg M.A.M.,Unilever |
Smits C.H.,Nutreco Swine Research Center |
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2011
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a main cause of diarrhoea in humans and piglets. In vitro, black tea extract (BTE) has anti-pathogenic properties. Anti-diarrhoeal properties of BTE were assessed in a pig model of gastrointestinal infection. At weaning (day 0), piglets (n=96) were randomly assigned to a diet containing 0% (control), 0.4% or 0.8% (wt/wt) BTE during 27days. Piglets were orally infected with 6.4×106cfu of ETEC on day 6. Faecal consistency, feed intake and body weight were measured. In a sub-study (n=30 piglets), the effect of BTE palatability on feed intake was assessed. Additionally, the effect of BTE on ETEC growth in the presence or absence of iron was studied in vitro. The 0.8% BTE diet reduced diarrhoea prevalence by 20% but also decreased feed intake by 16% and feed efficiency by 12% over the total period. The 0.4% BTE diet decreased feed efficiency and weight gain from day 13 onwards. The palatability study demonstrated that piglets preferred the control to the BTE diets. In vitro, BTE delayed ETEC exponential growth, which was reversed by iron addition. Although BTE had anti-diarrhoeal properties, this effect was accompanied by impaired performance. The absence of a correlation between diarrhoea prevalence and feed intake suggests that reduced diarrhoea directly results from BTE rather than from reduced feed intake caused by BTE astringency. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PubMed | Nutreco Swine Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011
The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, C). Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO(2) stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not related to the processing plants (e.g. genetic background of animals, transport, lairage) were standardized. In total, nine batches of about 150 pigs each were processed. Each batch was purchased at a commercial farm and randomly divided into three groups for delivery to the three processing plants. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring early post-mortem muscle pH and temperature as well as ultimate pH, meat colour (Minolta Chroma Meter and Japanese colour scale), filter paper score (FPS), electrical conductivity (EC) and drip loss. Plant C produced an inferior quality compared to plants A and B: meat was paler (C: 2.8 vs. A: 2.9 and B: 3.0 on the Japanese colour scale) and had higher drip losses (C: 5.2 vs. A: 4.8 and B: 4.9%). Meat colour hardly differed between plants A and B but waterholding properties were best at plant A as indicated by FPS (A: 2.4 vs. B: 2.8 vs. C: 3.3) and EC (A: 5.4 vs. B: 6.4 vs. C: 7.4 mS). It is concluded that processing plant may influence meat quality. Correlations between early post-mortem measurements and meat quality traits were low. Nevertheless, high carcass temperatures and low pH values early post-mortem were shown to lead to inferior meat quality.