Melbourne, Australia

Swinburne University of Technology
Melbourne, Australia

Swinburne University of Technology is an Australian public university of technology based in Melbourne, Victoria. Swinburne was founded in 1908 by the Honourable George Swinburne as the Eastern Suburbs Technical College. Its foundation campus is located in Hawthorn, a suburb of Melbourne which is located 7.5 km from the Melbourne central business district.In its first year, it enrolled 80 students in subjects including carpentry, plumbing and gas fitting. Today, Swinburne operates five campuses in two countries and has an enrolment of 60,000 students across vocational, undergraduate and postgraduate levels.In addition to its main Hawthorn campus, Swinburne has campuses in the Melbourne metropolitan area at Prahran, Wantirna and Croydon. Swinburne also has a branch campus in Sarawak, Malaysia which it has operated in partnership with the Sarawak State Government since 2000. Swinburne also have an online campus, Swinburne Online, which has been in operation since 2011. Internationally, Swinburne is ranked among the top 400 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and in the top 500 universities in the world by the 2013 QS World University Rankings. Swinburne is a member of the prestigious Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning, but its membership of European Consortium of Innovative Universities was inactive since 2012. Swinburne University of Technology is a principal partner to the Victorian Division of Engineers Australia. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 4, 2017

Astronomers, scientists, and researchers have been questing to find new life outside Earth for a very long time. Thus, every little detail obtained, which is related to outer space, is scrutinized thoroughly. Fast and short cosmic radio bursts in space have bewildered astronomers since they were first discovered a decade ago. A previous study conducted by Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics suggested that these Fast Radio Bursts or FRBs may have their origin in alien space probes. A new study fuels this notion and states that these FRBs indeed originate from outer space. FRBs are radio wave emissions that appear for milliseconds and occur without a specific pattern. These random occurrences not only make their detection tough, but also make it difficult for scientists to study them. The first FRB was recorded in 2007 by a radio telescope. However, the occurrence was for such a short span, that it took scientists years to decipher their origin or meaning. All astronomers could come up with were theories and suppositions, which may be far from the truth. To unravel this mystery, Manisha Caleb, a student at the Australia National University, the ARC Center of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics, or CAASTRO, and Swinburne University of Technology undertook a study to find the origin of these FRBs. Caleb and her colleagues from Swinburne University of Technology and University of Sydney were able to identify three FRBs, which were captured by the Molonglo radio telescope. This telescope is located 25 miles from Canberra. It was earlier believed that FRBs were nothing but local interferences jutting into the line of detection. However, in 2013, CAASTRO scientists and engineers discovered that the Molonglo radio telescope was able to "place a minimum distance to the FRBs due to its enormous focal length." "Conventional single dish radio telescopes have difficulty establishing that transmissions originate beyond the Earth's atmosphere," explained Swinburne University's Chris Flynn. Owing to its enormous focal length, the radio telescope has a massive data collection and huge viewing field, which facilities optimum results for FRB searches. The researchers' main aim was to develop specific software to help sieve through the massive pile of data (1000 TB), which the telescope collected every day. During this filtering of information, the existence of three new FRBs was discovered. "Figuring out where the bursts come from is the key to understanding what makes them. Only one burst has been linked to a specific galaxy," said Caleb. The study has been published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society on March 29. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

News Article | April 21, 2017

Drinking at least one artificially sweetened beverage daily was associated with almost three times the risk of developing stroke or dementia compared to those who drank artificially-sweetened beverages less than once a week, according to new research in the American Heart Association’s journal Stroke. The authors caution that the long-term observational study was not designed or able to prove cause and effect, and only shows a trend among one group of people. “Our study shows a need to put more research into this area given how often people drink artificially-sweetened beverages,” said Matthew Pase, a senior fellow in the department of neurology at Boston University School of Medicine, Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia, and the Framingham Heart Study. “Although we did not find an association between stroke or dementia and the consumption of sugary drinks, this certainly does not mean they are a healthy option. We recommend that people drink water on a regular basis instead of sugary or artificially sweetened beverages.” The researchers analyzed the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort of 2,888 people, primarily Caucasian, over the age of 45 for the stroke study and 1,484 people over the age of 60 for the dementia arm of the study. Over a period of seven years, the researchers reviewed what people were drinking at three different points in time. Participants reported their eating and drinking habits by responding to food frequency questionnaires. The researchers then followed up with the study subjects for the next 10 years to determine who developed stroke or dementia, then compared the dietary information to the risk of developing stroke and dementia over the course of the study. The data collected did not distinguish between the types of artificial sweeteners used in the beverages. At the end of the 10-year follow-up period, the researchers noted 97 cases (three percent) of stroke, 82 of which were ischemic (caused by blockage of blood vessels), and 81 (five percent) cases of dementia, 63 of which were diagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease. The researchers used statistical models, adjusted for various risk factors such as age, sex, caloric intake, education, diabetes mellitus and the presence of a variant of the Alzheimer’s risk gene apolipoprotein E, to determine potential links between artificially-sweetened drink consumption and the risk of stroke or dementia. They found that people who drank at least one artificially-sweetened beverage a day were three times as likely to develop ischemic stroke and 2.9 times as likely to develop Alzheimer's disease dementia. Although the prospective nature of the study design increases the reliability of its findings, there are limitations. The participants were overwhelmingly white, and it is possible that ethnic preferences may influence how often people select sugary or artificially sweetened drinks, Pase said. People did not drink sugary sodas as often as diet sodas, which Pase said could be one reason the researchers did not see an association with regular soda since the participants may have been health conscious and just not consuming them as frequently. The main limitation, Pase said, is the important point that an observational study like this cannot prove that drinking artificially-sweetened drinks is linked to strokes or dementia, but it does identify an intriguing trend that will need to be explored in other studies. “Even if someone is three times as likely to develop stroke or dementia, it is by no means a certain fate,” Pase said. “In our study, three percent of the people had a new stroke and five percent developed dementia, so we're still talking about a small number of people developing either stroke or dementia.” According to an accompanying editorial, the current body of scientific research is inconclusive regarding whether or not drinking artificially sweetened beverages can actually lead to stroke, dementia or other cardiovascular conditions. However, there are a growing number of population based studies, such as this study by Pase,, that show associations between frequent consumption of artificially sweetened beverages and undesirable effects on blood vessels throughout the body. This suggests that it may not be advisable to substitute or promote artificially sweetened drinks as healthier alternatives to sugar-sweetened drinks. “Both sugar and artificially sweetened soft drinks may be hard on the brain,” said senior editorial author Ralph Sacco M.D., a former president of the American Heart Association and the chairman of the Department of Neurology at the Miller School of Medicine at University of Miami in Florida. “We know that limiting added sugars is an important strategy to support good nutrition and healthy body weights, and until we know more, people should use artificially sweetened drinks cautiously. They may have a role for people with diabetes and in weight loss, but we encourage people to drink water, low-fat milk or other beverages without added sweeteners,” said Rachel K. Johnson, past chair of the American Heart Association’s Nutrition Committee and professor of nutrition at the University of Vermont.

News Article | April 17, 2017

A team of scientists from Australia, Belgium, Italy and the UK have demonstrated how ocean winds can generate spontaneous rogue waves, the first step to predicting the potentially dangerous phenomena. Rogue or freak waves are extremely high, steep waves appearing in deep ocean, surging without warning and seemingly at random. These events might cause severe damage to ships and structures like oil or gas platforms. The ability to forecast them would be hugely beneficial, but little is currently understood about what generates them. Researchers from The University of Melbourne (Australia), The Swinburne University of Technology (Australia), The University of Leuven (Belgium) and The University of East Anglia (UK) used a special circular wave tank at The University of Turin (Italy) to study the statistical properties of wind-generated waves, and therefore the likelihood of rogue wave development. Unlike previous experiments on rogue waves generated in conventional longitudinal tanks, the wave field they created by blowing wind in the annular wave flume can be thought of as infinitely long. Researchers started with still water in the tank, before turning on fans which replicated a steady wind, similar to conditions which might be seen on the ocean. Wind was blown over the surface for two hours, and the surface elevation of the water measured throughout. As wind starts blowing, an erratic wave field is generated. Rogue waves appear to develop naturally during the growth of the waves, and were detected just before the wave height reaches a stationary condition. The measurements let the research team estimate the probability of finding high steep waves, showing that this is higher than expected, thus providing crucial information about the mathematical likelihood of these waves occurring. Dr Davide Proment from UEA's School of Mathematics, said: "Despite a great effort made in recent decades the complete understanding of the formation of these extreme events remains elusive from the mathematical and physical point of view. "The particular geometry of the flume allowed us for the first time to create waves propagating circularly and continually - an 'unlimited-fetch' condition. Similar physical conditions actually appear in reality around the Antarctic continent where strong winds blow and seas states are notoriously extreme." The experiment took place at the TurLab facility of the Physics Department of the University of Turin (Italy). The experimental campaign was supported by the European Union through the European High Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence (EuHIT) consortium. 'Wind generated rogue waves in an annular flume' - A. Toffoli, D. Proment, H. Salman, J. Monbaliu, F. Frascoli, M.Dafilis, E. Stramignoni, R. Forza, M. Manfrin, and M. Onorato is published in the journal Physical Review Letters on Friday 7 April.

Parrott A.C.,University of Swansea | Parrott A.C.,Swinburne University of Technology
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2013

Serotonergic neurotoxicity following MDMA is well-established in laboratory animals, and neuroimaging studies have found lower serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users. Serotonin is a modulator for many different psychobiological functions, and this review will summarize the evidence for equivalent functional deficits in recreational users. Declarative memory, prospective memory, and higher cognitive skills are often impaired. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with reduced SERT in the hippocampus, parietal cortex, and prefrontal cortex. EEG and ERP studies have shown localised reductions in brain activity during neurocognitive performance. Deficits in sleep, mood, vision, pain, psychomotor skill, tremor, neurohormonal activity, and psychiatric status, have also been demonstrated. The children of mothers who take Ecstasy/MDMA during pregnancy have developmental problems. These psychobiological deficits are wide-ranging, and occur in functions known to be modulated by serotonin. They are often related to lifetime dosage, with light users showing slight changes, and heavy users displaying more pronounced problems. In summary, abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users can show deficits in a wide range of biobehavioral functions with a serotonergic component. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Graham A.W.,Swinburne University of Technology
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

The popular log-linear relation between supermassive black hole mass, Mbh, and the dynamical mass of the host spheroid, Msph, is shown to require a significant correction. Core galaxies, typically with M bh ≳ 2 × 108 M⊙ and thought to be formed in dry merger events, are shown to be well described by a linear relation for which the median black hole mass is 0.36% - roughly double the old value of constancy. Of greater significance is that Mbh α M2 sph among the (non-pseudobulge) lower-mass systems: specifically, log [Mbh/M⊙] = (1.92 0.38)log [M sph/7 × 1010 M⊙] + (8.38 ± 0.17). "Classical" spheroids hosting a 106 M ⊙ black hole will have Mbh/Msph 0.025%. These new relations presented herein (1) bring consistency to the relation α Mbhσ5 and the fact that α Lσx with exponents of 5 and 2 for bright (MB ≲ -20.5 mag) and faint spheroids, respectively, (2) mimic the non-(log-linear) behavior known to exist in the Mbh-(Sérsic n) diagram, (3) necessitate the existence of a previously overlooked Mbhα L2.5 relation for Sérsic (i.e., not core-Sérsic) galaxies, and (4) resolve past conflicts (in mass prediction) with the M bh-σ relation at the low-mass end. Furthermore, the bent nature of the Mbh-Msph relation reported here for "classical" spheroids will have a host of important implications that, while not addressed in this paper, relate to (1) galaxy/black hole formation theories, (2) searches for the fundamental, rather than secondary, black hole scaling relation, (3) black hole mass predictions in other galaxies, (4) alleged pseudobulge detections, (5) estimates of the black hole mass function and mass density based on luminosity functions, (6) predictions for space-based gravitational wave detections, (7) connections with nuclear star cluster scaling relations, (8) evolutionary studies over different cosmic epochs, (9) comparisons and calibrations matching inactive black hole masses with low-mass active galactic nucleus data, and more. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Reid M.D.,Swinburne University of Technology
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

Monogamy inequalities for the way bipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering can be distributed among N systems are derived. One set of inequalities is based on witnesses with two measurement settings, and may be used to demonstrate correlation of outcomes between two parties, that cannot be shared with more parties. It is shown that the monogamy for steering is directional. Two parties cannot independently demonstrate steering of a third system, using the same two-setting steering witness, but it is possible for one party to steer two independent systems. This result explains the monogamy of two-setting Bell inequality violations and the sensitivity of the continuous variable (CV) EPR criterion to losses on the steering party. We generalize to m settings. A second type of monogamy relation gives the quantitative amount of sharing possible, when the number of parties is less than or equal to m, and takes a form similar to the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters relation for entanglement. The results enable characterization of the tripartite steering for CV Gaussian systems and qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states. © 2013 American Physical Society.

We build a theoretical model to study the origin of the globular cluster metallicity bimodality in the hierarchical galaxy assembly scenario. The model is based on empirical relations such as the galaxy mass-metallicity relation [O/H]-Mstar as a function of redshift, and on the observed galaxy stellar mass function up to redshift z ∼ 4. We make use of the theoretical merger rates as a function of mass and redshift from the Millennium simulation to build galaxy merger trees. We derive a new galaxy [Fe/H]-Mstar relation as a function of redshift, and by assuming that globular clusters share the metallicity of their original parent galaxy at the time of their formation, we populate the merger tree with globular clusters. We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of the galaxy hierarchical assembly, and study the properties of the final globular cluster population as a function of galaxy mass, assembly and star formation history, and under different assumptions for the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation. The main results and predictions of the model are the following. (1) The hierarchical clustering scenario naturally predicts a metallicity bimodality in the galaxy globular cluster population, where the metal-rich subpopulation is composed of globular clusters formed in the galaxy main progenitor around redshift z ∼ 2, and the metal-poor subpopulation is composed of clusters accreted from satellites, and formed at redshifts z ∼ 3-4. (2) The model reproduces the observed relations by Peng et al. for the metallicities of the metal-rich and metal-poor globular cluster subpopulations as a function of galaxy mass; the positions of the metal-poor and metal-rich peaks depend exclusively on the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation and the [O/Fe], both of which can be constrained by this method. In particular, we find that the galaxy [O/Fe] evolves linearly with redshift from a value of ∼0.5 at redshift z ∼ 4 to a value of ∼0.1 at z = 0. (3) For a given galaxy mass, the relative strength of the metal-rich and metal-poor peaks depends exclusively on the galaxy assembly and star formation history, where galaxies living in denser environments and/or early-type galaxies show a larger fraction of metal-poor clusters, while galaxies with a sparse merger history and/or late-type galaxies are dominated by metal-rich clusters. (4) The globular cluster metallicity bimodality disappears for galaxy masses around and below Mstar ∼ 109 M⊙, and for redshifts z > 2. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Van Straten W.,Swinburne University of Technology
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2013

A new method of polarimetric calibration is presented in which the instrumental response is derived from regular observations of PSR J0437-4715 based on the assumption that the mean polarized emission from this millisecond pulsar remains constant over time. The technique is applicable to any experiment in which high-fidelity polarimetry is required over long timescales; it is demonstrated by calibrating 7.2 years of high-precision timing observations of PSR J1022+1001 made at the Parkes Observatory. Application of the new technique followed by arrival time estimation using matrix template matching yields post-fit residuals with an uncertainty-weighted standard deviation of 880 ns, two times smaller than that of arrival time residuals obtained via conventional methods of calibration and arrival time estimation. The precision achieved by this experiment yields the first significant measurements of the secular variation of the projected semimajor axis, the precession of periastron, and the Shapiro delay; it also places PSR J1022+1001 among the 10 best pulsars regularly observed as part of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. It is shown that the timing accuracy of a large fraction of the pulsars in the PPTA is currently limited by the systematic timing error due to instrumental polarization artifacts. More importantly, long-term variations of systematic error are correlated between different pulsars, which adversely affects the primary objectives of any pulsar timing array experiment. These limitations may be overcome by adopting the techniques presented in this work, which relax the demand for instrumental polarization purity and thereby have the potential to reduce the development cost of next-generation telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array. © 2013 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Graham A.W.,Swinburne University of Technology
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

Four new nuclear star cluster masses, M nc, plus seven upper limits, are provided for galaxies with previously determined black hole masses, M bh. Together with a sample of 64 galaxies with direct M bh measurements, 13 of which additionally now have M nc measurements rather than only upper limits, plus an additional 29 dwarf galaxies with available M nc measurements and velocity dispersions σ, an diagram is constructed. Given that major dry galaxy merger events preserve the M bh/L ratio, and given that L∝σ 5 for luminous galaxies, it is first noted that the observation M bh∝σ 5 is consistent with expectations. For the fainter elliptical galaxies it is known that L∝σ 2, and assuming a constant M nc/L ratio, the expectation that M nc∝σ 2 is in broad agreement with our new observational result that M nc∝σ 1.57 ± 0.24. This exponent is however in contrast to the value of ∼4 which has been reported previously and interpreted in terms of a regulating feedback mechanism from stellar winds. Finally, it is predicted that host galaxies fainter than M B∼-20.5 mag (i.e. those not formed in dry merger events) which follow the relation M bh∝σ 5, and are thus not 'pseudo-bulges', should not have a constant M bh/M host ratio but instead have. It is argued that the previous near-linear and relations have been biased by the sample selection of luminous galaxies, and as such should not be used to constrain the co-evolution of supermassive black holes in galaxies other than those luminous few built by major dry merger events. © 2012 The Author Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.

Liu X.-J.,Swinburne University of Technology
Physics Reports | Year: 2013

A strongly correlated Fermi system plays a fundamental role in very different areas of physics, from neutron stars, quark-gluon plasmas, to high temperature superconductors. Despite the broad applicability, it is notoriously difficult to be understood theoretically because of the absence of a small interaction parameter. Recent achievements of ultracold trapped Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance have ushered in enormous changes. The unprecedented control of interaction, geometry and purity in these novel systems has led to many exciting experimental results, which are to be urgently understood at both low and finite temperatures. Here we review the latest developments of virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi gas and their applications on ultracold trapped Fermi atoms. We show remarkable, quantitative agreements between virial predictions and various recent experimental measurements at about the Fermi degenerate temperature. For equations of state, we discuss a practical way of determining high-order virial coefficients and use it to calculate accurately the long-sought third-order virial coefficient, which is now verified firmly in experiments at ENS and MIT. We discuss also virial expansion of a new many-body parameter-Tan's contact. We then turn to less widely discussed issues of dynamical properties. For dynamic structure factors, the virial prediction agrees well with the measurement at the Swinburne University of Technology. For single-particle spectral functions, we show that the expansion up to the second order accounts for the main feature of momentum-resolved rf-spectroscopy for a resonantly interacting Fermi gas, as recently reported by JILA. In the near future, more practical applications with virial expansion are possible, owing to the ever-growing power in computation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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